However, British naval supremacy almost eliminated American trade with Germany while shipments to the Allies soared. To counter this trend, German U-boats submarines torpedoed U. Strong protest from Wilson subdued the submarine campaign, but it would emerge again as the war ground on and became more desperate. In late January , Germany announced it would destroy all ships heading to Britain. Although Wilson broke off diplomatic ties with Germany, he still hoped to avert war by arming merchant vessels as a deterrent.
Nevertheless, Germany began sinking American ships immediately. In February , British intelligence gave the United States government a decoded telegram from Germany's foreign minister, Arthur Zimmerman, that had been intercepted en route to his ambassador to Mexico. Zimmerman Telegram authorized the ambassador to offer Mexico the portions of the Southwest it had lost to the United States in the s if it joined the Central Powers.
But because Wilson had run for reelection in on a very popular promise to keep the United States out of the European war, he had to handle the telegram very carefully. Wilson did not publicize it at first, only releasing the message to the press in March after weeks of German attacks on American ships had turned public sentiment toward joining the Allies. On 2 April , Wilson asked Congress for a declaration of war and four days later all but six senators and fifty representatives voted for a war resolution.
The Selective Service Act that was passed the following month, along with an extraordinary number of volunteers, built up the army from less than , to four million over the course of the conflict. Initially, the nation was woefully unprepared to fight so large a war so far from American soil. The task of reorganizing government and industry to coordinate a war and then of recruiting, training, equipping, and shipping out massive numbers of soldiers was daunting and would proceed slowly.
The first serious U. It would take a gargantuan national effort, one that would forever change the government and its relationship to the citizenry, to get those troops into combat. Although there is strong evidence that the war was broadly supported—and certainly Americans volunteered and bought Liberty Bonds in droves—the epic scale of the undertaking and the pressure of time led the government, in an unprecedented campaign, to sell the war effort through a massive propaganda blitz. This organization was charged with providing the press with carefully selected information on the progress of the war.
It also worked with the advertising industry to produce eyecatching and emotional propaganda for various agencies involved in the war effort in order to win maximum cooperative enthusiasm form the public. Its largest enterprise was the Four Minute Men program, which sent more than 75, speakers to over , public events to rouse the patriotism of as many as million spectators over the course of the war. The CPI recruited mainly prominent white businessmen and community leaders; however, it did set up a Women's Division and also courted locally prominent African Americans to speak at black gatherings.
The government needed patriotic cooperation, for it was completely unequipped to enforce many of the new regulations it adopted. It also had to maximize the productive resources of the nation to launch the U. The War Industries Board was charged with gearing up the economy to war production, but it lacked coercive authority. Even the Overman Act of May , which gave the president broad powers to commandeer industries if necessary, failed to convince capitalists to retool completely toward the war effort.
The government only took control of one industry, the railroads, in December , and made it quite clear that the measure was only a temporary necessity. In all other industries, it was federal investment—not control—that achieved results. Overall, the effort to raise production was too little and too late for maximizing the nation's military clout.
American production was just hitting stride as the war ended, but the threat that it represented did help convince an exhausted Germany to surrender. Many workers connected Wilson's war goals—democracy and self-determination for nations—to struggles for a voice in their workplaces through union representation. However, the number of striking workers was lower in and than in The government had considerable success in resolving disputes and convincing employers to at least temporarily give some ground to the unions.
When this novel arbitration framework disappeared along with government contracts in , workers participated in the largest strike wave in the nation's history—over four million participated in walkouts during that year. For women workers the war also raised hopes, but as with labor as a whole, they were dashed after the conflict. The number of women working as domestic servants and in.
The very limited place of women in the economy had opened up and government propaganda begged women to take jobs. However, few of these new opportunities, and even then only the least attractive of them, went to nonwhite women. Mainly confined to low-skilled work, many women were let go when the postwar economy dipped or were replaced by returning soldiers.
Although women did gain, and hold on to, a more prominent place in the AFL, they were still only 10 percent of the membership in The government made some attempts through the NWLB to protect the rights of working women, although it backed off after the war. But women fought on their own behalf on the suffrage front and finally achieved the right to vote in African Americans also made some gains but suffered a terrible backlash for them. There were ninety-six lynchings of blacks during and and seventy in alone. Blacks were moving out of the South in massive numbers during the war years, confronting many white communities in the North with a substantial nonwhite presence for the first time.
Northward migration by blacks averaged only 67, per decade from through and then exploded to , during the s. This Great Migration gave blacks access to wartime factory jobs that paid far better than agricultural work in the South , but like white women, they primarily did lowskilled work and were generally rejected by the union movement. The hatred that many of these migrants faced in the North forced them into appalling ghettos and sometimes led to bloodshed. In July , a race riot in East St. Louis, Illinois, left thirty-nine African Americans dead.
The recently formed NAACP championed justice and democratic rights for African Americans at a time when black soldiers were helping to guarantee them for the peoples of Europe. Although job opportunities would recede after the war, the new racial diversity outside the South would not—and neither would the fight for equal rights. The fragility of a war effort that relied on a workforce of unprecedented diversity and on cooperation from emboldened unions led the federal government to develop for the first time a substantial intelligence-gathering capability for the purpose of suppressing elements it thought might destabilize the system.
The primary targets were anti-capitalist radicals and enemy aliens German and Austro-Hungarian immigrants. The former group was targeted through the Espionage Act of June , which was amended by the Sedition Act in May after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia convinced the government to seek even wider powers to control public speech. The Department of Justice, through its U. Many government agencies developed at least some intelligence capacity and the private, but government sanctioned, American Protective League recruited perhaps , citizen-spies to keep tabs on their fellow Americans.
In this climate of suspicion, German-speaking aliens had the most cause to be afraid. War propaganda dehumanized Germans and blasted their culture and language.
Well over a half-million enemy aliens were screened by the Department of Justice and were restricted in their mobility and access to military and war production sites. Several thousand enemy aliens deemed disloyal were interned until the conflict was over. The end of the war was nowhere in sight when U. Now under foreign command, American troops helped stop the renewed German offensive in May and June.
The First U. Army was given its own mission in August: to push the Germans back to the southeast and northwest of Verdun and then seize the important railroad facilities at Sedan. The campaign got under way in September and American troops succeeded in removing the Germans from the southeast of Verdun, although the latter were already evacuating that area. The Meuse-Argonne offensive to the northwest of Verdun was launched in late September and proved to be much more bloody. Although the German position was heavily fortified, well over a million American soldiers simply overwhelmed all resistance.
This massive and relentless operation convinced the German command that its opportunity to defeat the Allies before American troops and industry were fully ready to enter the fray had been lost. In the end, two million American troops went to France and three-quarters of them saw combat.
Some 60, died in battle and over , were wounded. An additional 60, died of disease, many from the influenza pandemic that killed over twenty million across the globe in and Many surviving combatants suffered psychological damage, known as shell shock, from the horrors of trench warfare. The casualties would have been far greater had America entered the war earlier or been prepared to deploy a large army more quickly.
Wilson hoped that after the war the United States would become part of the League of Nations that was forming in Europe to ensure that collective responsibility replaced competitive alliances. But America was retreating inward, away from the postwar ruin and revolutionary chaos of Europe. The government was suppressing radicals at home with unprecedented furor in and in what is known as the Red Scare. Progressive wartime initiatives that further involved the government in the lives of its citizens withered against this reactionary onslaught.
But the notion of government coordination of a national effort to overcome crisis had been born, and the Great Depression and World War II would see this new commitment reemerge, strengthened. Farwell, Byron. New York : Norton, Focuses on military action. Greenwald, Maurine Weiner. West-port, Conn. Kennedy, Kathleen. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, Luebke, Frederick. McCartin, Joseph. Focuses on workers and war production. Preston, William, Jr. Aliens and Dissenters: Federal Suppression of Radicals, — Cambridge, Mass. Focuses on home front repression. Venzon, Anne Cipriano, ed.
New York : Garland, Good general work. Zieger, Robert. Lanham, Md. Stresses the home front. Zeiger, Susan. Ithaca, N. World War I, —18, also known as the Great War, conflict, chiefly in Europe, among most of the great Western powers. It was the largest war the world had yet seen. There were, however, many factors that had led toward war. Prominent causes were the imperialistic, territorial, and economic rivalries that had been intensifying from the late 19th cent.
Of equal importance was the rampant spirit of nationalism, especially unsettling in the empire of Austria-Hungary and perhaps also in France. Nationalism had brought the unification of Germany by "blood and iron," and France, deprived of Alsace and Lorraine by the Franco-Prussian War of —71, had been left with its own nationalistic cult seeking revenge against Germany. While French nationalists were hostile to Germany, which sought to maintain its gains by militarism and alliances, nationalism was creating violent tensions in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy ; there the large Slavic national groups had grown increasingly restive, and Serbia as well as Russia fanned Slavic hopes for freedom and Pan-Slavism.
Imperialist rivalry had grown more intense with the "new imperialism" of the late 19th and early 20th cent. The great powers had come into conflict over spheres of influence in China and over territories in Africa, and the Eastern Question , created by the decline of the Ottoman Empire , had produced several disturbing controversies. Particularly unsettling was the policy of Germany.
It embarked late but aggressively on colonial expansion under Emperor William II , came into conflict with France over Morocco , and seemed to threaten Great Britain by its rapid naval expansion. These issues, imperialist and nationalist, resulted in a hardening of alliance systems in the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente and in a general armaments race. Nonetheless, a false optimism regarding peace prevailed almost until the onset of the war, an optimism stimulated by the long period during which major wars had been avoided, by the close dynastic ties and cultural intercourse in Europe, and by the advance of industrialization and economic prosperity.
Many Europeans counted on the deterrent of war's destructiveness to preserve the peace. War's Outbreak The Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina created an international crisis, but war was avoided. The Balkan Wars —13 remained localized but increased Austria's concern for its territorial integrity, while the solidification of the Triple Alliance made Germany more yielding to the demands of Austria, now its one close ally.
The assassination June 28, of Archduke Francis Ferdinand at Sarajevo set in motion the diplomatic maneuvers that ended in war. The Austrian military party, headed by Count Berchtold , won over the government to a punitive policy toward Serbia. On July 23, Serbia was given a nearly unacceptable ultimatum. With Russian support assured by Sergei Sazonov , Serbia accepted some of the terms but hedged on others and rejected those infringing upon its sovereignty. Russian mobilization precipitated a German ultimatum July 31 that, when unanswered, was followed by a German declaration of war on Russia Aug.
Convinced that France was about to attack its western frontier, Germany declared war Aug. Germany had hoped for British neutrality, but German violation of Belgian neutrality gave the British government the pretext and popular support necessary for entry into the war. The war had become general. Whether it might have been avoided or localized and which persons and nations were most responsible for its outbreak are questions still debated by historians. From the Marne to Verdun The German strategy, planned by Alfred von Schlieffen, called for an attack on the weak left flank of the French army by a massive German force approaching through Belgium, while maintaining a defensive stance toward Russia, whose army, Schlieffen assumed, would require six weeks to mobilize.
By that time, Germany would have captured France and would be ready to meet the forces on the Eastern Front. The Schlieffen plan was weakened from the start when the German commander Helmuth von Moltke detached forces from the all-important German right wing, which was supposed to smash through Belgium, in order to reinforce the left wing in Alsace-Lorraine.
Nevertheless, the Germans quickly occupied most of Belgium and advanced on Paris. In Sept. For reasons still disputed, a general German retreat was ordered after the battle, and the Germans entrenched themselves behind the Aisne River. The Germans then advanced toward the Channel ports but were stopped in the first battle of Ypres see Ypres, battles of ; grueling trench warfare ensued along the entire Western Front.
Over the next three years the battle line remained virtually stationary. The Germans advanced on Warsaw, but farther south a Russian offensive drove back the Austrians. However, by the autumn of combined Austro-German efforts had driven the Russians out of most of Poland and were holding a line extending from Riga to Chernovtsy Chernivtsi. The Russians counterattacked in in a powerful drive directed by General Brusilov , but by the year's end the offensive had collapsed, after costing Russia many thousands of lives. Soon afterward the Russian Revolution eliminated Russia as an effective participant in the war.
Although the Austro-Hungarians were unsuccessful in their attacks on Serbia and Montenegro in the first year of the war, these two countries were overrun in by the Bulgarians who had joined the Central Powers in Oct. Another blow to the Allied cause was the failure in of the Gallipoli campaign , an attempt to force Turkey out of the war and to open a supply route to S Russia. The Allies, however, won a diplomatic battle when Italy, after renouncing its partnership in the Triple Alliance and after being promised vast territorial gains, entered the war on the Allied side in May, Fighting between Austria and Italy along the Isonzo River was inconclusive until late , when the rout of the Italians at Caporetto made Italy a liability rather than an asset to the Allies.
Except for the conquest of most of Germany's overseas colonies by the British and Japanese, the year opened with a dark outlook for the Allies. In Feb. The French, rallying with the cry, "They shall not pass! By November they had gained a few thousand yards and lost thousands of men. By December, a French counteroffensive at Verdun had restored the approximate positions of Jan. Despite signs of exhaustion on both sides, the war went on, drawing ever more nations into the maelstrom.
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Portugal and Romania joined the Allies in ; Greece, involved in the war by the Allied Salonica campaigns on its soil, declared war on the Central Powers in At the end of , Germany, whose surface fleet had been bottled up since the indecisive battle of Jutland see Jutland, battle of , announced that it would begin unrestricted submarine warfare in an effort to break British control of the seas. In protest the United States broke off relations with Germany Feb. American participation meant that the Allies now had at their command almost unlimited industrial and manpower resources, which were to be decisive in winning the war.
It also served from the start to lift Allied morale, and the insistence of President Woodrow Wilson on a "war to make the world safe for democracy" was to weaken the Central Powers by encouraging revolutionary groups at home. The war on the Western Front continued to be bloody and stalemated. Lawrence stirred the Arabs to revolt, Baghdad fell Mar. A unified Allied command in the West was created in Apr. The resources of Ukraine seemed at their disposal, enabling them to balance to some extent the effects of the Allied blockade; most important, their forces could now be concentrated on the Western Front.
The critical German counteroffensive, known as the second battle of the Marne , was stopped just short of Paris July—Aug. At this point Foch ordered a general counterattack that soon pushed the Germans back to their initial line the so-called Hindenburg Line. The Allied push continued, with the British advancing in the north and the Americans attacking through the Argonne region of France. Austria-Hungary, in the process of disintegration, surrendered on Nov. German resources were exhausted and German morale had collapsed. President Wilson's Fourteen Points were accepted by the new German chancellor, Maximilian, prince of Baden , as the basis of peace negotiations, but it was only after revolution had broken out in Germany that the armistice was at last signed Nov.
Germany was to evacuate its troops immediately from all territory W of the Rhine, and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was declared void. The war ended without a single truly decisive battle having been fought, and Germany lost the war while its troops were still occupying territory from France to Crimea. This paradox became important in subsequent German history, when nationalists and militarists sought to blame the defeat on traitors on the home front rather than on the utter exhaustion of the German war machine and war economy.
By the Treaty of Versailles Germany was forced to acknowledge guilt for the war. Later, prompted by the Bolshevik publication of the secret diplomacy of the czarist Russian government, the warring powers gradually released their own state papers, and the long historical debate on war guilt began. It has with some justice been claimed that the conditions of the peace treaties were partially responsible for World War II. Yet when World War I ended, the immense suffering it had caused gave rise to a general revulsion to any kind of war, and a large part of mankind placed its hopes in the newly created League of Nations.
To calculate the total losses caused by the war is impossible. About 10 million dead and 20 million wounded is a conservative estimate. Starvation and epidemics raised the total in the immediate postwar years. Warfare itself had been revolutionized by the conflict see air forces ; chemical warfare ; mechanized warfare ; tank. Bibliography There is a tremendous amount of general and specialized literature on World War I. Classic accounts of the war are S. Fay, The Origins of the World War rev. Schmitt, The Coming of the War, , repr. Two short guides to the military history are B.
Liddell Hart, The Real War , repr. Baldwin, World War I See also W. Churchill, The World Crisis 6 vol. Tuchman, The Guns of August ; L. Ferro, The Great War ; T. Travers, The Killing Ground , repr. Strachan, ed. Ferguson, The Pity of War ; J. Eisenhower, Yanks ; E. Brose, The Kaiser's Army ; D. Fromkin, Europe's Last Summer ; N. Stone, World War One ; G. Martel, Origins of the First World War rev. Beatty, The Lost History of ; S. Hart, The Great War ; M.
Hastings, Catastrophe ; M. Holborn and H. Historian Eric Hobsbawm has referred to as the de facto beginning of the twentieth century. The triggering cause of the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand , the Habsburg heir, on June 28, , in Sarajevo by Bosnian Serb nationalists. This matter might have stayed an internal dispute in Austria-Hungary, but other states quickly took sides. According to one interpretation of World War I, a rigid alliance structure drew reluctant states into what would otherwise have been a localized conflict.
Many of the belligerents did have alliances binding them to a particular side. For example, both Britain and France had pledged to defend Belgian neutrality, which was violated at the beginning of the war by German invasion. However, all of the belligerents also had compelling national interests for participating in World War I, including concerns about national insurgency and perceptions of the European balance of power. Nationalism drew belligerents into World War I in two ways. Russia defended Serbia at least partly in the name of pan-Slavism, or solidarity among Slavic peoples.
The Ottoman Empire had a different concern. Like its Habsburg counterpart, the Ottoman Empire comprised a variety of national groups, all ruled by a single dominant national group. The spread of democracy and other egalitarian movements in Europe challenged the legitimacy of the old empires. Over the course of the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire experienced various national uprisings, including those by Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians, and Armenians. By helping the Habsburgs resist nationalist insurgency, the Ottomans hoped to avert future problems of their own. In addition, many states were concerned about the changing European balance of power.
The pentagonal balance created at the Congress of Vienna had been relatively successful, both in keeping European conflicts manageable and protecting the interests of Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany previously called Prussia , and Russia. By , however, several of these states were not content with the existing balance of power. For example, Germany was a latecomer to imperialism, a process dominated by France and Britain, and therefore perceived itself at a disadvantage in both power projection and resource extraction. German leaders argued that this would balance French and British power.
Germany had benefited tremendously from the Industrial Revolution , especially since its natural resource base was well suited to industrial production. In , Germany ranked third in industrial production behind Britain and France. By , Germany led them both by a substantial margin. To avoid German hegemony as a fait accompli , the other great powers would need to act quickly. Russia, too, had balance-of-power concerns regarding Germany, with which it shared a tense history.
Furthermore, Russia had been at an enduring geopolitical disadvantage because it lacked warm water ports i. Once the war began, its course was horrifyingly unique to European experience. Germany expanded the aggression outside of Austria-Hungary by implementing the Schlieffen Plan, a military strategy designed to prevent Germany from fighting on two fronts simultaneously.
The existence of such a plan reflected the influence of prevailing social attitudes on military doctrine. Darwin argued that organisms with traits well suited to their environment would be the most likely to survive and reproduce. The Social Darwinist ideal twisted this commentary to argue that powerful groups had the ability, even the right, to dominate weaker ones and to mold human relations as they saw fit.
As a result, states generated extremely aggressive military grand strategies — their overall plans for using the military instrument of foreign policy.
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In early August , Germany attacked Belgium. Reinforced by troops from Britain and France, Belgium tenaciously resisted German invasion. Russia, having anticipated conflict with Germany and availing itself of technological advances such as railroads, mobilized faster than Germany had anticipated. Within weeks, Germany found itself caught in a two-front war. This conflict was unlike any Europe had seen before. Various conditions of the war made territorial conquest difficult. In the west, the extremely flat terrain of Southwestern Belgium provided little natural shelter.
This encouraged trench warfare , the digging of passageways open to the surface, from which soldiers could attack with at least minimal cover. The introduction of barbed wire assisted in this process and in holding territory. Capturing territory from the trenches was difficult.
Military engagement frequently ended in deadlock, as when the German attack at Verdun preempted an Entente offensive on the Somme, but did not achieve the larger goal of crippling the French. Later that year, Britain launched its first major offensive of the war, at the Somme. In four months the Entente lost some , men while gaining only a few miles of territory. For years, neither side had an enduring battlefield advantage, although both expended unprecedented amounts of materiel and human lives. At least twenty million soldiers were killed or wounded during the war.
Military leaders introduced destructive new technologies, attempting to break the trench stalemate. Machine guns allowed for tremendous firepower and resulted in devastating casualties, as did tanks and submarines as new weapons platforms. Poison gas, introduced by Germany at Ypres in , was difficult to control in deployment and undetectable until its effects were irreversible; gas caused pain, burns, other physical trauma, and death. These conditions eventually generated a sense of futility and ennui among many soldiers, and caused mutiny late in the war, such as that of the French army in On the eastern front, armies enjoyed greater mobility but suffered staggering casualties in the face of the technological innovations.
In Russia withdrew from the conflict because of the Bolshevik Revolution. Although President Woodrow Wilson — had campaigned on a no-war platform, the economic significance, in particular of Britain and France, finally persuaded him to change his position. With the declaration of war by the U.
The new influx of American resources and personnel, beginning in earnest in the summer of , was too much for Germany. The agreement was signed on November 11, , at 00 a.
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For many Germans, the Entente victory seemed illegitimate. Germany had not been outmaneuvered on the battlefield and victorious Entente troops did not capture Berlin. Beginning in January , the former belligerents met in Paris to formulate the peace treaty, known as the Treaty of Versailles after the palace in which it was signed. President Wilson attended the conference, to the surprise and consternation of many of his counterparts, making him the first sitting U.
Two major goals of the treaty were to render Germany harmless and to avoid future problems with national insurgency. To achieve the first goal the victors implemented a number of programs targeting Germany, including reparation payments, disarmament, and neutralization of territory. To achieve the second goal, the victors promoted national selfdetermination for European ethnic groups, redrawing the map of eastern Europe so that the political boundaries more closely matched the homelands of ethnic groups. Ferro, Marc. The Great War, — Nicole Stone. Fussell, Paul. The Great War and Modern Memory.
New York : Oxford University Press. Kennedy, David M. Keylor, William R. New York: Oxford University Press. Van Evera, Stephen. International Security 9 1 : 58 — First World War. In August Britain ostensibly went to war against Germany because of the latter's unprovoked invasion of Belgium. Though from the outset British policy-makers recognized that co-operation with their Russian and French allies would be essential if they were to win the war, they were determined to give that co-operation strictly on their own terms, rendering only enough assistance to their allies to prevent them from collapsing.
The men who made British policy during the war had reached maturity and formed their vision of the world in the late s and early s. They had learned to see Russia and France as Britain's most bitter imperial competitors and they did not forget that fact even after the German threat emerged in the decade before Their misgivings concerning their allies' ambitions played a major role in determining British war aims.
They wanted a peace settlement which would reduce Germany's power and also ensure that neither Russia nor France could tilt the European balance against Britain or menace Britain's imperial possessions. In the Asquith government believed that the war would reach its climax in Britain could achieve her objectives at least cost by allowing her allies to carry the weight of the continental land war with only token British assistance.
Meanwhile the Royal Navy would undermine the German economy by blockade and Britain would offer financial help to her allies. Kitchener formed the New Armies in the belief that by the end of the armies of the other belligerents would be exhausted. His troops would be unbloodied and in Britain could intervene decisively in land war, crush Germany and her allies, Turkey , Austria-Hungary, and after September Bulgaria , and impose Britain's peace terms on everyone.
This policy collapsed because France and Russia were not willing to fight for three years without British military support. By late the government had reluctantly accepted that if they failed to give their allies large-scale support on the continent, France and Russia might prefer to make a negotiated peace. But it was equally obvious that the cost of increasing Britain's commitment to the continental land war might be self-defeating. Some argued that if the New Armies were committed to a major allied offensive in France in , losses could only be made good by conscription.
But if more men were taken away from the civilian economy, Britain would be bankrupt before the enemy sued for peace. The British offensive on the Somme in was an enormous gamble. The government was wagering that the Entente could win the war before Britain went bankrupt. The attack failed, for although both the British and German armies suffered enormously, the Germans had no intention of asking for peace terms.
Instead they tried to starve Britain into submission by launching a campaign of unrestricted U-boat warfare against British shipping. This was the strategic situation which Lloyd George inherited when he became prime minister in December His aims were the same as Asquith's, but he was more aware than Asquith that he would have to work hard to sustain popular support for the war, for war-weariness was now rife in Britain.
But morale depended upon more than adequate supplies of food and fuel. Lloyd George knew that the people had to be convinced that their sacrifices were reaping tangible victories, and if they could not be won on the western front, they had to be gained elsewhere. One reason why he supported offensives at Salonika in Greece , in Palestine , and in northern Italy was his belief that a victory gained on one of those fronts would provide a much-needed stimulus to British morale.
The new government also knew that victory could only be achieved in co-operation with its allies. But in the spring of the pillars upon which British strategy rested began to crumble. In March the British greeted the first Russian Revolution with cautious enthusiasm, hoping that Russia would follow the same path as France in ; from the ruins of the tsarist regime would emerge a new military colossus.
But news of the crumbling discipline of the Russian army meant that their hopes soon gave way to the fear that Russia would desert the alliance, and that the Germans would move large numbers of troops to the western front and break the allied economic blockade by gaining access to Russian food and fuel. In the mean time a large part of the French army mutinied, and although most French soldiers were ready to defend their trenches, they would not participate in further futile offensives.
At sea German U-boats were sinking so many merchant ships that Britain was close to starvation. But any hope that the Americans would soon be able to throw their weight into the land war in Europe was quickly dashed. The USA had a tiny regular army and would not be able to deploy an appreciable force in France before or even The debate about the future of British strategy in the summer of therefore concerned one question: what should be the new timetable for administering the knock-out blow against Germany? One option was to follow the French example. After the mutinies they had decided to remain on the defensive in the west for the remainder of , and wait for and the Americans before trying to drive the Germans back across the Rhine.
In the meantime the British might, as Lloyd George urged, divert troops to northern Italy. The Italians had entered the war on Britain's side in May If they could defeat the Austrians, and persuade them to make peace, they would destroy Germany's ambition of establishing an empire stretching from Hamburg, through Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, to Baghdad.
The alternative was to permit the commander-in-chief, Sir Douglas Haig , to have his way and mount an offensive in Flanders. If Haig drove the Germans from the Belgian coast he would remove the threat of invasion, inflict a major defeat upon the German army, and take German pressure off France and Russia. Haig believed that he could force the Germans to sue for peace by Christmas The politicians doubted, but allowed him to try. They expected little military help from the French, but they were afraid that if the British did nothing, France would go the way of the Russians and collapse.
The third battle of Ypres Passchendaele in July was a failure. Haig then launched a second offensive, using massed tanks, at Cambrai, but that also failed. In October Italy suffered a major defeat at Caporetto and in November the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia and soon signed an armistice. The arrival of the American army was even slower than the British had anticipated. Lloyd George still believed that the war could be won only after the German army had been defeated on the western front but he also believed that, if the British mounted another large-scale offensive in France in , their army would be exhausted, America would dominate the Entente in , and America, not Britain, would dictate the peace treaty.
He therefore decided that Britain must preserve her army and economic staying-power in The knock-out blow against Germany would be delayed until , when the arrival of the Americans would give the Entente a crushing superiority. In January , and despite the opposition of his own generals, Lloyd George persuaded Britain's partners to agree to his new timetable for victory in In each partner would increase production of artillery, aircraft, and tanks in order to multiply the fire-power of her dwindling military manpower, and Britain would safeguard her own imperial interests in Egypt and India by defeating the Turks in Palestine.
The British were not fighting only to re-establish the balance of power in western Europe, for Turkey's entry into the war on the side of Germany in November had made the First World War an Asiatic as well as a European war. In —16 the British had mounted expeditions against Mesopotamia , Palestine, and at the Dardanelles to protect their Asiatic possessions. The war was a contest for the division of world power. The Germans wanted to replace Britain as a world power by creating a middle European empire. It was a war in which the British assessed victory or defeat by their success or failure in frustrating Germany's ambitions and by their ability to maintain their own security in western Europe and in India and the Middle East.
Lloyd George's timetable for victory in collapsed because in the spring of the Germans made their own final attempt to win the war before they became exhausted. Between March and July the survival of the Entente alliance was in doubt. At one moment the Germans threatened to divide the British army from its French ally. But by June the last German offensive had been stopped, and in July the Entente's armies began a counter-offensive, forcing the Germans back.
The way in which the war ended surprised Britain and her allies. As late as August they were still preparing plans to continue fighting into and even As late as mid-October Haig did not think that the German army was so badly beaten that the German government would accept the armistice terms which the Entente wanted. When the armistice negotiations began in October the British had to consider several conflicting factors. Should they continue fighting into , to invade Germany and inflict a Carthaginian peace upon the German people?
Would such a settlement threaten the future peace of Europe by leaving the French too powerful and by making the Germans vengeful? Were the British people willing to fight for another year?
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Would the economic and political cost of doing so leave western Europe devastated and dominated by the USA? How could the allies devise armistice terms which would not be so harsh that the Germans would reject them but which would prevent Germany from gaining a breathing space after which it could start fighting again?
It was only after weighing these factors they opted for an early peace and the guns fell silent on 11 November , a year earlier than most British policy-makers had anticipated. David French. Bourne, J. In retaliation and to aid an ally, Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August. The Russians crossed their western border at the Ukraine to enter Austro-Hungarian Galicia and pressed on to battle Germany, losing the Battle of Tannenberg 26 — 30 August , on what came to be called the Eastern Front.
Germany marched on France in late August but was stopped in the First Battle of the Marne 6 — 10 September on what came to be called the Western Front; here trench warfare ensued until March In the Middle East , the leadership of the Ottoman Empire was divided among those who desired neutrality, those who wanted to join the Allies, and those who preferred to join the Central powers.
The Ottoman cabinet signed a secret alliance with Germany on 2 August. The next week the Ottomans purchased the German cruisers Goeben and Breslau, replacing two Turkish ships being built by Britain but confiscated by Britain at the outbreak of war. In November , a British naval contingent bombarded the entrance to the Dardanelles , and in January the British organized to break through the Turkish Straits from the Mediterranean into the Black Sea at the Bosporus and Dardanelles. Britain's First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill convinced the war cabinet that an amphibious attack could accomplish this, thereby taking the Ottomans out of the war and opening a supply route to Russia.
Britain's War Secretary Lord Kitchener sabotaged the plan by refusing to send the necessary land troops. Britain's navy unsuccessfully attacked in February and March; in April an Anglo-French army landed on the Gallipoli peninsula, where the Ottoman Turks caused heavy casualties to the Allies, which by then included Italian forces. The British-French-Italian forces almost broke through twice, but the lack of cooperation by the Russians at the Bosporus end of the Straits, faulty intelligence and, most of all, skillful tactics by the Turks and Germans led to a stalemate.
The Allies withdrew from the Straits in January Another area of major Middle Eastern hostilities was Egypt , under British protection since 18 December He sent his forces to make a surprise attack on the Suez Canal in February ; they crossed the Negev desert without detection. Cemal continued to raid the Suez Canal by air, forcing the British to keep a large force there, but in the end the British prevailed.
A second assault on the canal was delayed until the summer of and failed totally. The Turco-German forces were on the defensive there until the end of the war, although in March and April they withstood a heavy British attack at Gaza, and moved to the offensive in the Yilderim Operation commanded by General Erich von Falkenhayn. But the Turko-German forces were defeated by a combination of factors, including the troops of British General Edmund Allenby commander of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force , failure of some of their transport, and sabotage.
Major battles were fought in Russia, where in late the Turks attempted to take Kars and Batum. They were aided by Armenians — revolutionaries and irregulars. The two revolutions in Russia also affected the Caucasus front, as the Russian troops except the Armenian and Georgian divisions withdrew and went home to attend to domestic affairs in A Bolshevik-Armenian coup in Baku and the killing of ten thousand Turks there produced a Turkish drive to recapture the city in September and to kill many Armenians.
At the end of the war, the Caucasus became the Allies' problem. Iraq was the scene for the major hostilities of the Mesopotamia Campaign. British forces from India seized Basra before Turkey declared war. Baghdad fell immediately after, and the Anglo-Indian forces headed north to Mosul on the west bank of the Tigris , which they failed to reach by the time of the Mudros Armistice 30 October Two national groups within the Ottoman Empire openly aided the enemy during the war: the Arabs and the Armenians.
The Armenians followed the orders of the head of the Armenian Orthodox Church who lived in Yerevan in the Caucasus that the Russian czar was the protector of all Armenians. This desire was furthered by the proclamation of Arab independence by Sharif Husayn ibn Ali of the Hijaz in June Husayn's action was part of the outcome of the secret Husayn-McMahon Correspondence. An open negotiation between the Zionists and the British had led to the issuance of the November pro-Zionist Balfour Declaration, concerning a "Jewish national home" in Palestine.
The failure of the German-Turkish campaigns led to the buildup of British troops in Egypt and their move into Palestine. Joined by French military detachments, he moved north to take Lebanon , while Hijazi forces, aided by Colonel T. Lawrence of Arabia , Colonel C. Four years of war had devastated Ottoman Turkey, and the old order died. A new period for the Middle East began with the peace treaties, the rise to power in Turkey of Mustafa Kemal, the fall of empires, and the creation of new nation-states and spheres of influence. Barker, A.
New York : Dial Press, Kedourie, Elie. Hassocks, U. Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey, 3d edition. New York : Oxford University Press, World War I was an international conflict primarily involving European nations that was fought between and The leadership of President woodrow wilson led to both the conclusion of hostilities and the creation of the league of nations, an international organization dedicated to resolving disputes without war. The war began on July 28, , when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia.
During the late nineteenth century, European nations had negotiated military alliances with each other that called for mutual protection. The Austria-Hungary declaration of war triggered these alliance commitments, leading to the widening of the war between the Allies and Central Powers. During the next four years, the war was fought primarily on three fronts and on the Atlantic Ocean. The southern front was in Serbia and involved Austria-Hungary and Serbia. In August Germany invaded Belgium and then moved into France.
German forces were unable to achieve a decisive victory, however, ever, and the war soon became a conflict of fixed battle lines. French, British, and German soldiers lived and fought in trenches, periodically making assaults on the enemy by entering the "no man's land" between the two sets of trenches. The use of machine guns, tanks, gas warfare, and artillery in these confined battlefields generated unprecedented human carnage on the western front.
Though Germany had more success on the eastern front, neither side had sufficient economic and military strength to achieve victory. In and early , Wilson sought to bring about negotiations between the Allies and Central Powers that would lead, in his words, to "peace without victory. Germany's use of submarine warfare proved to be the key element in provoking the United States' entry into the war. In a German submarine had torpedoed without warning the British passenger steamship Lusitania off the southern coast of Ireland. Nearly 1, persons died, including U.
Popular feeling in the United States against Germany was intense, leading to calls for declaring war on Germany. Wilson, however, sought a diplomatic solution. Though Germany rebuked his call for assuming responsibility for the tragedy, it did not sink any more passenger liners without warning. Wilson abandoned his peacemaking efforts when Germany announced that unrestricted submarine warfare would begin on February 1, This meant that U.
Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany on February 3 and asked Congress later that month for authority to arm merchant ships and take other protective measures. In mid-March German submarines sank three U. Wilson called a special session of Congress for April 2 and asked for a declaration of war on Germany.
Congress obliged, and on April 6, , Wilson signed the declaration. The United States immediately moved to raise a large military force by instituting a military draft. It took months, however, to raise, train, and dispatch troops to Europe. Pershing, arrived in France in June By the end of the war in November , there were 2 million soldiers in the AEF. Germany realized that U. In March Germany launched its last great offensive on the western front. During the second Battle of the Marne, U.
The Allies began pushing back the German army all along the western front, signaling the beginning of the end of German resistance. Wilson renewed his peace efforts by proposing a framework for negotiations. On January 8, , he delivered an address to Congress that named Fourteen Points to be used as the guide for a peace settlement. The fourteenth point called for a general association of nations that would guarantee political independence and territorial integrity for all countries. In October Germany asked Wilson to arrange a general armistice based on the Fourteen Points and the immediate start of peace negotiations.
Germany finally capitulated and signed an armistice on November 11, The treaty of versailles ended World War I and imposed disarmament, reparations, and territorial changes on Germany. The treaty also established the League of Nations , an international organization dedicated to resolving world conflicts peacefully. Wilson, however, was unable to convince the U. Senate to ratify the treaty, because it was opposed to U. World War I also saw the Bolshevik revolution in Russia. The specter of a worldwide Communist movement generated fears in the United States that socialists, anarchists, and Communists were undermining democratic institutions.
During the war, socialist opponents of the war were convicted of sedition and imprisoned. In the federal government rounded up 6, aliens who it considered to be politically subversive. Agents entered and searched homes without warrants, held persons without specific charges for long periods of time, and denied them legal counsel. Hundreds of aliens were deported. Macmillan, Margaret Olwen. Paris Six Months that Changed the World. New York : Random House. May, Christopher N.
Murphy, Paul L. New York : Norton. World War 1 resulted from growing tensions in Europe , exacerbated by the rise of the German Empire since and the decline of Ottoman power in the Balkans. Many other countries were drawn in: Ottoman Turkey joined the Central Powers in , Bulgaria in Russia withdrew following the Russian Revolution In Europe fighting was largely static. The Allies checked the initial German advance through Belgium at the Marne , and the Western Front settled into a war of attrition, with huge casualties but little progress.
Hubbard's stay on earth. Hubbard joined The Explorers Club in February on the strength of his claimed explorations in the Caribbean and survey flights in the United States. Coast Pilot guide to the coastlines of Alaska and British Columbia and investigate new methods of radio position-finding. Hubbard told The Seattle Star in a November letter that the expedition was plagued by problems and did not get any further than Ketchikan near the southern end of the Alaska Panhandle , far from the Aleutian Islands. The Hubbards reached Ketchikan on August 30, , after many delays following repeated engine breakdowns.
The Ketchikan Chronicle reported—making no mention of the expedition—that Hubbard's purpose in coming to Alaska "was two-fold, one to win a bet and another to gather material for a novel of Alaskan salmon fishing". He raised money by writing stories and contributing to the local radio station  and eventually earned enough to fix the engine,  making it back to Puget Sound on December 27, His friend Robert MacDonald Ford, by now a State Representative for Washington, sent a letter of recommendation describing Hubbard as "one of the most brilliant men I have ever known".
Ford later said that Hubbard had written the letter himself: "I don't know why Ron wanted a letter. I just gave him a letter-head and said, 'Hell, you're the writer, you write it! Hubbard was commissioned as a Lieutenant junior grade in the U. Naval Reserve on July 19, On December 18, he was posted to the Philippines and set out for the posting via Australia.
He is garrulous and tries to give impressions of his importance. He also seems to think he has unusual ability in most lines. These characteristics indicate that he will require close supervision for satisfactory performance of any intelligence duty. After a brief stint censoring cables, Hubbard's request for sea duty was approved and he reported to a Neponset, Massachusetts shipyard which was converting a trawler into a gunboat to be classified as USS YP On September 25, , the Commandant of Boston Navy Yard informed Washington that, in his view, Hubbard was "not temperamentally fitted for independent command.
Only five hours into the voyage, Hubbard believed he had detected an enemy submarine. Hubbard spent the next 68 hours engaged in combat, until finally receiving orders to return to Astoria. Admiral Fletcher, commander of the Northwest Sea Frontier , concluded: "An analysis of all reports convinces me that there was no submarine in the area.
The following month, Hubbard unwittingly sailed the PC into Mexican territorial waters and conducted gunnery practice off the Coronado Islands , in the belief that they were uninhabited and belonged to the United States. The Mexican government complained and Hubbard was relieved of command. A report written after the incident rated Hubbard as unsuitable for independent duties and "lacking in the essential qualities of judgment, leadership and cooperation".
The report recommended he be assigned "duty on a large vessel where he can be properly supervised". There he began reporting sick, citing a variety of ailments, including malaria, ulcers, and back pains. Hubbard was admitted to the naval hospital for observation—he would remain there nearly three months.
You are free of the Navy. Hubbard requested, and was granted, a transfer to the School of Military Government in Princeton. The night before his departure, the ship's log reports that "The Navigating Officer [Hubbard] reported to the OOD [Officer On Duty] that an attempt at sabatage [sic] had been made sometime between A coke bottle filled with gasoline with a cloth wick inserted had been concealed among cargo which was to be hoisted aboard and stored in No 1 hold.
It was discovered before being taken on board. Hubbard attended school in Princeton until January , when he was assigned to Monterey, California. An October Naval Board found that Hubbard was "considered physically qualified to perform duty ashore, preferably within the continental United States". Hubbard would ultimately resign his commission after the publication of Dianetics , with effect from October 30, Hubbard's life underwent a turbulent period immediately after the war. According to his own account, he "was abandoned by family and friends as a supposedly hopeless cripple and a probable burden upon them for the rest of my days".
Their marriage was by now in terminal difficulties and he chose to stay in California. A leading rocket propulsion researcher at the California Institute of Technology and a founder of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory , Parsons led a double life as an avid occultist and Thelemite , follower of the English ceremonial magician Aleister Crowley and leader of a lodge of Crowley's magical order , Ordo Templi Orientis OTO. Hubbard befriended Parsons and soon became sexually involved with Parsons's year-old girlfriend, Sara "Betty" Northrup.
He moved in with me about two months ago, and although Betty and I are still friendly, she has transferred her sexual affection to Ron. Although he has no formal training in Magick, he has an extraordinary amount of experience and understanding in the field. From some of his experiences I deduced that he is in direct touch with some higher intelligence, possibly his Guardian Angel.
He describes his Angel as a beautiful winged woman with red hair whom he calls the Empress and who has guided him through his life and saved him many times. He is the most Thelemic person I have ever met and is in complete accord with our own principles. The two men collaborated on the " Babalon Working ", a sex magic ritual intended to summon an incarnation of Babalon , the supreme Thelemite Goddess.
It was undertaken over several nights in February and March in order to summon an "elemental" who would participate in further sex magic. Parsons used his "magical wand" to whip up a vortex of energy so the elemental would be summoned. Translated into plain English, Parsons jerked off in the name of spiritual advancement whilst Hubbard referred to as "The Scribe" in the diary of the event scanned the astral plane for signs and visions.
The "elemental" arrived a few days later in the form of Marjorie Cameron , who agreed to participate in Parsons's rites. The plan was for Hubbard and Sara to buy yachts in Miami and sail them to the West Coast to sell for a profit. Hubbard had a different idea; he wrote to the U. A week later, Allied Enterprises was dissolved. He had to sell his mansion to developers soon afterwards to recoup his losses. Hubbard's fellow writers were well aware of what had happened between him and Parsons.
Sprague de Camp wrote to Isaac Asimov on August 27, , to tell him:. The more complete story of Hubbard is that he is now in Fla. He will probably soon thereafter arrive in these parts with Betty-Sarah, broke, working the poor-wounded-veteran racket for all its worth, and looking for another easy mark. Don't say you haven't been warned. Bob [ Robert Heinlein ] thinks Ron went to pieces morally as a result of the war. I think that's fertilizer, that he always was that way, but when he wanted to conciliate or get something from somebody he could put on a good charm act.
What the war did was to wear him down to where he no longer bothers with the act. On August 10, , Hubbard bigamously married Sara, while still married to Polly. It was not until that his first wife learned that he had remarried. Hubbard agreed to divorce Polly in June that year and the marriage was dissolved shortly afterwards, with Polly given custody of the children. During this period, Hubbard authored a document called The " Affirmations " also referred to as the "Admissions".
They consist of a series of statements by and addressed to Hubbard, relating to various physical, sexual, psychological and social issues that he was encountering in his life. The Affirmations appear to have been intended to be used as a form of self-hypnosis with the intention of resolving the author's psychological problems and instilling a positive mental attitude. In her book , Reitman called the Affirmations "the most revealing psychological self-assessment, complete with exhortations to himself, that [Hubbard] had ever made.
After trying and failing for two years to regain my equilibrium in civil life, I am utterly unable to approach anything like my own competence. My last physician informed me that it might be very helpful if I were to be examined and perhaps treated psychiatrically or even by a psychoanalyst. Toward the end of my service I avoided out of pride any mental examinations, hoping that time would balance a mind which I had every reason to suppose was seriously affected. I cannot account for nor rise above long periods of moroseness and suicidal inclinations, and have newly come to realize that I must first triumph above this before I can hope to rehabilitate myself at all.
I cannot, myself, afford such treatment. Would you please help me? The VA eventually did increase his pension,  but his money problems continued. In , Hubbard and his second wife Sara moved from California to Savannah, Georgia, where he would later claim to have "worked" as a "volunteer" in the psychiatric clinic.
Hubbard later wrote of having observed a "Dr. Center" in Savannah. He wrote in January that he was working on a "book of psychology" about "the cause and cure of nervous tension", which he was going to call The Dark Sword , Excalibur or Science of the Mind. Hubbard referenced Heinlein's earlier work Coventry , in which a utopian government has the ability to psychologically "cure" criminals of violent personality traits.
Wrote Hubbard:. Well, you didn't specify in your book what actual reformation took place in the society to make supermen. Got to thinking about it other day. The system is Excalibur. It makes nul A's. In April , Hubbard wrote to several professional organizations to offer his research. Campbell, who was more receptive due to a long-standing fascination with fringe psychologies and psychic powers " psionics " that "permeated both his fiction and non-fiction".
In July , Campbell recruited an acquaintance, Dr. Joseph Winter, to help develop Hubbard's new therapy of "Dianetics". Campbell told Winter:. With cooperation from some institutions, some psychiatrists, [Hubbard] has worked on all types of cases. Institutionalized schizophrenics, apathies, manics, depressives, perverts, stuttering, neuroses—in all, nearly cases. But just a brief sampling of each type; he doesn't have proper statistics in the usual sense.
But he has one statistic. He has cured every patient he worked with. He has cured ulcers, arthritis, asthma. Hubbard collaborated with Campbell and Winter to refine his techniques,  testing them on science fiction fans recruited by Campbell. Bad or painful experiences were stored as what he called "engrams" in a " reactive mind ". These could be triggered later in life, causing emotional and physical problems. By carrying out a process he called "auditing" , a person could be regressed through his engrams to re-experiencing past experiences.
This enabled engrams to be "cleared". The subject, who would now be in a state of "Clear" , would have a perfectly functioning mind with an improved IQ and photographic memory. Winter submitted a paper on Dianetics to the Journal of the American Medical Association and the American Journal of Psychiatry but both journals rejected it. In an editorial, Campbell said: "Its power is almost unbelievable; it proves the mind not only can but does rule the body completely; following the sharply defined basic laws set forth, physical ills such as ulcers, asthma and arthritis can be cured, as can all other psychosomatic ills.
Hubbard described Dianetics as "the hidden source of all psychosomatic ills and human aberration" when he introduced Dianetics to the world in the s. He further claimed that "skills have been developed for their invariable cure. Hubbard abandoned freelance writing in order to promote Dianetics, writing several books about it in the next decade, delivering an estimated 4, lectures while founding Dianetics research organizations.
Dianetics was an immediate commercial success and sparked what Martin Gardner calls "a nationwide cult of incredible proportions". Five hundred Dianetic auditing groups had been set up across the United States. Dianetics was poorly received by the press and the scientific and medical professions. Several famous individuals became involved with Dianetics. Aldous Huxley received auditing from Hubbard;  the poet Jean Toomer  and the science fiction writers Theodore Sturgeon  and A. Van Vogt temporarily abandoned writing and became the head of the newly established Los Angeles branch of the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation.
Other branches were established in New York, Washington, D. Hubbard himself took large sums with no explanation of what he was doing with it. Hubbard played a very active role in the Dianetics boom, writing, lecturing and training auditors. Many of those who knew him spoke of being impressed by his personal charisma. Jack Horner, who became a Dianetics auditor in , later said, "He was very impressive, dedicated and amusing. The man had tremendous charisma; you just wanted to hear every word he had to say and listen for any pearl of wisdom. Sprague de Camp and their wives "all sat as quietly as pussycats and listened to Hubbard.
He told tales with perfect aplomb and in complete paragraphs. He undoubtedly has charisma, a magnetic lure of an indefinable kind which makes him the centre of attraction in any kind of gathering. He is also a compulsive talker and pontificator His restless energy keeps him on the go throughout a long day—he is a poor sleeper and rises very early—and provides part of the drive which has allowed him to found and propagate a major international organization.
Hubbard's supporters soon began to have doubts about Dianetics. Winter became disillusioned and wrote that he had never seen a single convincing Clear: "I have seen some individuals who are supposed to have been 'clear,' but their behavior does not conform to the definition of the state. Moreover, an individual supposed to have been 'clear' has undergone a relapse into conduct which suggests an incipient psychosis. Dianetics lost public credibility in August when a presentation by Hubbard before an audience of 6, at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles failed disastrously.
However, Gardner writes, "in the demonstration that followed, she failed to remember a single formula in physics the subject in which she was majoring or the color of Hubbard's tie when his back was turned. At this point, a large part of the audience got up and left. Hubbard also faced other practitioners moving into leadership positions within the Dianetics community.
It was structured as an open, public practice in which others were free to pursue their own lines of research and claim that their approaches to auditing produced better results than Hubbard's. By late , the Elizabeth, N. Foundation and all of its branches had closed. The collapse of Hubbard's marriage to Sara created yet more problems. He had begun an affair with his year-old public relations assistant in late , while Sara started a relationship with Dianetics auditor Miles Hollister.
According to Hubbard, Sara was "currently intimate with [communists] but evidently under coercion. Drug addiction set in fall Nothing of this known to me until a few weeks ago. He was said to be the "center of most turbulence in our organization" and "active and dangerous".
Three weeks later, Hubbard and two Foundation staff seized Sara and his year-old daughter Alexis and forcibly took them to San Bernardino, California , where he attempted unsuccessfully to find a doctor to examine Sara and declare her insane. Sara filed a divorce suit on April 23, , that accused him of marrying her bigamously and subjecting her to sleep deprivation , beatings, strangulation , kidnapping and exhortations to commit suicide. The things I have said about L. Ron Hubbard in courts and the public prints have been grossly exaggerated or entirely false. I have not at any time believed otherwise than that L.
Ron Hubbard is a fine and brilliant man. Dianetics appeared to be on the edge of total collapse. However, it was saved by Don Purcell, a millionaire businessman and Dianeticist who agreed to support a new Foundation in Wichita, Kansas. Their collaboration ended after less than a year when they fell out over the future direction of Dianetics. The ruling prompted Purcell and the other directors of the Wichita Foundation to file for voluntary bankruptcy in February Only six weeks after setting up the Hubbard College and marrying a staff member, year-old Mary Sue Whipp, Hubbard closed it down and moved with his new bride to Phoenix, Arizona.
The Church of Scientology attributes its genesis to Hubbard's discovery of "a new line of research"—"that man is most fundamentally a spiritual being a thetan ". Hubbard was complaining of not being able to make a living on what he was being paid as a science fiction writer. Ellison says that Lester del Rey told Hubbard that what he needed to do to get rich was start a religion. Hubbard expanded upon the basics of Dianetics to construct a spiritually oriented though at this stage not religious doctrine based on the concept that the true self of a person was a thetan—an immortal, omniscient and potentially omnipotent entity.
In , Ohio State University professor Hugh Urban  asserted that Hubbard had adopted many of his theories from the early to mid 20th century astral projection pioneer Sylvan Muldoon stating that Hubbard's description of exteriorizing the thetan is extremely similar if not identical to the descriptions of astral projection in occult literature popularized by Muldoon's widely read Phenomena of Astral Projection co-written with Hereward Carrington  and that Muldoon's description of the astral body as being connected to the physical body by a long thin, elastic cord is virtually identical to the one described in Hubbard's "Excalibur" vision.
Hubbard introduced a device called an E-meter that he presented as having, as Miller puts it, "an almost mystical power to reveal an individual's innermost thoughts". Scientology was organized in a very different way from the decentralized Dianetics movement. Training procedures and doctrines were standardized and promoted through HAS publications, and administrators and auditors were not permitted to deviate from Hubbard's approach.
Each franchise holder was required to pay ten percent of income to Hubbard's central organization. They were expected to find new recruits, known as "raw meat", but were restricted to providing only basic services. Costlier higher-level auditing was only provided by Hubbard's central organization.
Although this model would eventually be extremely successful, Scientology was a very small-scale movement at first. Hubbard started off with only a few dozen followers, generally dedicated Dianeticists; a seventy-hour series of lectures in Philadelphia in December was attended by just 38 people. It was very much a shoestring operation; as Helen O'Brien later recalled, "there was an atmosphere of extreme poverty and undertones of a grim conspiracy over all. At Holland Park Avenue was an ill-lit lecture room and a bare-boarded and poky office some eight by ten feet—mainly infested by long haired men and short haired and tatty women.
In February , Hubbard acquired a doctorate from the unaccredited degree mill called Sequoia University. As membership declined and finances grew tighter, Hubbard had reversed the hostility to religion he voiced in Dianetics. We don't want a clinic. We want one in operation but not in name. Perhaps we could call it a Spiritual Guidance Center. Think up its name, will you. And we could put in nice desks and our boys in neat blue with diplomas on the walls and 1. It is a problem of practical business.
I await your reaction on the religion angle. In my opinion, we couldn't get worse public opinion than we have had or have less customers with what we've got to sell. The letter's recipient, Helen O'Brien, resigned the following September. The idea may not have been new; Hubbard has been quoted as telling a science fiction convention in "Writing for a penny a word is ridiculous. If a man really wants to make a million dollars, the best way would be to start his own religion. Gordon Melton notes, "There is no record of Hubbard having ever made this statement, though several of his science fiction colleagues have noted the broaching of the subject on one of their informal conversations.
Scientology franchises became Churches of Scientology and some auditors began dressing as clergymen, complete with clerical collars. If they were arrested in the course of their activities, Hubbard advised, they should sue for massive damages for molesting "a Man of God going about his business". Don't ever defend, always attack. The purpose of the suit is to harass and discourage rather than to win. The law can be used very easily to harass, and enough harassment on somebody who is simply on the thin edge anyway, well knowing that he is not authorized, will generally be sufficient to cause his professional decease.
If possible, of course, ruin him utterly. The s saw Scientology growing steadily. Hubbard finally achieved victory over Don Purcell in when the latter, worn out by constant litigation, handed the copyrights of Dianetics back to Hubbard. Plagued by illness? We'll make you able to have good health. Get processed by the finest capable auditors in the world today Personally coached and monitored by L. Ron Hubbard. Scientology became a highly profitable enterprise for Hubbard. The house became Hubbard's permanent residence and an international training center for Scientologists.
By the start of the s, Hubbard was the leader of a worldwide movement with thousands of followers. A decade later, however, he had left Saint Hill Manor and moved aboard his own private fleet of ships as the Church of Scientology faced worldwide controversy.
They have sought at great expense for nineteen years to crush and eradicate any new development in the field of the mind. They are actively preventing any effectiveness in this field. Hubbard believed that Scientology was being infiltrated by saboteurs and spies and introduced " security checking "  to identify those he termed "potential trouble sources" and " suppressive persons ".
Members of the Church of Scientology were interrogated with the aid of E-meters and were asked questions such as "Have you ever practiced homosexuality? Ron Hubbard? He also sought to exert political influence, advising Scientologists to vote against Richard Nixon in the presidential election and establishing a Department of Government Affairs "to bring government and hostile philosophies or societies into a state of complete compliance with the goals of Scientology".
This, he said, "is done by high-level ability to control and in its absence by a low-level ability to overwhelm. Introvert such agencies. Control such agencies. The U. Government was already well aware of Hubbard's activities. The FBI had a lengthy file on him, including a interview with an agent who considered him a "mental case". Internal Revenue Service withdrew the Washington, D. Church of Scientology's tax exemption after it found that Hubbard and his family were profiting unreasonably from Scientology's ostensibly non-profit income.
The Church of Scientology was required to label them as being "ineffective in the diagnosis or treatment of disease". Following the FDA's actions, Scientology attracted increasingly unfavorable publicity across the English-speaking world. He was described as being of doubtful sanity, having a persecution complex and displaying strong indications of paranoid schizophrenia with delusions of grandeur.
His writings were characterized as nonsensical, abounding in "self-glorification and grandiosity, replete with histrionics and hysterical, incontinent outbursts". The former conception of the movement as a relatively harmless, if cranky, health and self-improvement cult, was transformed into one which portrayed it as evil, dangerous, a form of hypnosis with all the overtones of Svengali in the layman's mind , and brainwashing. The report led to Scientology being banned in Victoria,  Western Australia and South Australia ,  and led to more negative publicity around the world.
Newspapers and politicians in the UK pressed the British government for action against Scientology. In April , hoping to form a remote "safe haven" for Scientology, Hubbard traveled to the southern African country Rhodesia today Zimbabwe and looked into setting up a base there at a hotel on Lake Kariba. Despite his attempts to curry favour with the local government—he personally delivered champagne to Prime Minister Ian Smith 's house, but Smith refused to see him—Rhodesia promptly refused to renew Hubbard's visa, compelling him to leave the country.
Hubbard took three major new initiatives in the face of these challenges. It required Scientologists to " disconnect " from any organization or individual—including family members—deemed to be disruptive or "suppressive". If one has the right to communicate, then one must also have the right to not receive communication from another. It is this latter corollary of the right to communicate that gives us our right to privacy. Hubbard promulgated a long list of punishable "Misdemeanors", "Crimes", and "High Crimes". May be tricked, sued or lied to or destroyed. Finally, at the end of , Hubbard acquired his own fleet of ships.
After Hubbard created the Sea Org "fleet" in early it began an eight-year voyage, sailing from port to port in the Mediterranean Sea and eastern North Atlantic. The fleet traveled as far as Corfu in the eastern Mediterranean and Dakar and the Azores in the Atlantic, but rarely stayed anywhere for longer than six weeks. Ken Urquhart, Hubbard's personal assistant at the time, later recalled:. If they caught up with him they would cause him so much trouble that he would be unable to continue his work, Scientology would not get into the world and there would be social and economic chaos, if not a nuclear holocaust.
When Hubbard established the Sea Org he publicly declared that he had relinquished his management responsibilities. According to Miller, this was not true. He received daily telex messages from Scientology organizations around the world reporting their statistics and income. Along the way, Hubbard sought to establish a safe haven in "a friendly little country where Scientology would be allowed to prosper", as Miller puts it. Hubbard renamed the ships after Greek gods—the Royal Scotman was rechristened Apollo —and he praised the recently established military dictatorship.
At the same time, Hubbard was still developing Scientology's doctrines. A Scientology biography states that "free of organizational duties and aided by the first Sea Org members, L. Ron Hubbard now had the time and facilities to confirm in the physical universe some of the events and places he had encountered in his journeys down the track of time. Scientologists around the world were presented with a glamorous picture of life in the Sea Org and many applied to join Hubbard aboard the fleet.
Most of those joining had no nautical experience at all. Following one incident in which the rudder of the Royal Scotman was damaged during a storm, Hubbard ordered the ship's entire crew to be reduced to a "condition of liability" and wear gray rags tied to their arms. According to those aboard, conditions were appalling; the crew was worked to the point of exhaustion, given meagre rations and forbidden to wash or change their clothes for several weeks.
We tried not to think too hard about his behavior. It was not rational much of the time, but to even consider such a thing was a discreditable thought and you couldn't allow yourself to have a discreditable thought. One of the questions in a sec[urity] check was, "Have you ever had any unkind thoughts about LRH? So you tried hard not to. They were mainly young girls dressed in hot pants and halter tops , who were responsible for running errands for Hubbard such as lighting his cigarettes, dressing him or relaying his verbal commands to other members of the crew.
During the s, Hubbard faced an increasing number of legal threats. French prosecutors charged him and the French Church of Scientology with fraud and customs violations in He was advised that he was at risk of being extradited to France. Hubbard's health deteriorated significantly during this period. A chain-smoker , he also suffered from bursitis and excessive weight, and had a prominent growth on his forehead. He remained active in managing and developing Scientology, establishing the controversial Rehabilitation Project Force in  and issuing policy and doctrinal bulletins.
At the time, The Apollo Stars , a musical group founded by Hubbard and made up entirely of ship-bound members of the Sea Org, was offering free on-pier concerts in an attempt to promote Scientology, and the riot occurred at one of these events. Hubbard decided to relocate back to the United States to establish a "land base" for the Sea Org in Florida. In October , Hubbard moved into a hotel suite in Daytona Beach. The Fort Harrison Hotel in Clearwater, Florida , was secretly acquired as the location for the "land base".
He lived there for only about three months, relocating in October to the more private confines of the Olive Tree Ranch near La Quinta. He believed that Scientology was being attacked by an international Nazi conspiracy, which he termed the "Tenyaka Memorial", through a network of drug companies, banks and psychiatrists in a bid to take over the world.
The GO carried out covert campaigns on his behalf such as Operation Bulldozer Leak , intended "to effectively spread the rumor that will lead Government, media, and individual [ Suppressive Persons ] to conclude that LRH has no control of the C of S and no legal liability for Church activity". He was kept informed of GO operations, such as the theft of medical records from a hospital, harassment of psychiatrists and infiltrations of organizations that had been critical of Scientology at various times, such as the Better Business Bureau , the American Medical Association , and American Psychiatric Association.
Members of the GO infiltrated and burglarized numerous government organizations, including the U. Department of Justice and the Internal Revenue Service. They retrieved wiretap equipment, burglary tools and some 90, pages of incriminating documents. Hubbard was not prosecuted, though he was labeled an " unindicted co-conspirator " by government prosecutors.
His wife Mary Sue was indicted and subsequently convicted of conspiracy. She was sent to a federal prison along with ten other Scientologists. Hubbard's troubles increased in February when a French court convicted him in absentia for obtaining money under false pretenses. He cut contact with everyone else, even his wife, whom he saw for the last time in August For the first few years of the s, Hubbard and the Broekers lived on the move, touring the Pacific Northwest in a recreational vehicle and living for a while in apartments in Newport Beach and Los Angeles.
The book soundtrack Space Jazz was released in In Hubbard's absence, members of the Sea Org staged a takeover of the Church of Scientology and purged many veteran Scientologists. A young messenger, David Miscavige , became Scientology's de facto leader. Mary Sue Hubbard was forced to resign her position and her daughter Suzette became Miscavige's personal maid. For the last two years of his life, Hubbard lived in a luxury Blue Bird motorhome on Whispering Winds, a acre ranch near Creston, California.
He remained in deep hiding while controversy raged in the outside world about whether he was still alive and, if so, where. He spent his time "writing and researching", according to a spokesperson, and pursued photography and music, overseeing construction work and checking on his animals. Hubbard suffered further ill-health, including chronic pancreatitis , during his residence at Whispering Winds. He suffered a stroke on January 17, , and died a week later.
Hubbard was survived by his wife Mary Sue and all of his children except his second son Quentin. His will provided a trust fund to support Mary Sue; her children Arthur, Diana and Suzette; and Katherine, the daughter of his first wife Polly. Ron Hubbard, Jr. She was rebuffed with the implied claim that her real father was Jack Parsons rather than Hubbard, and that her mother had been a Nazi spy during the war.
Hubbard's great-grandson, Jamie DeWolf , is a noted slam poet. The copyrights of his works and much of his estate and wealth were willed to the Church of Scientology. They are buried at the Trementina Base in a vault under a mountain near Trementina, New Mexico , on top of which the CST's logo has been bulldozed on such a gigantic scale that it is visible from space.
Hubbard is the Guinness World Record holder for the most published author, with 1, works,  most translated book 70 languages for The Way to Happiness  and most audiobooks as of April Scientologists have written of their desire to "make Ron the most acclaimed and widely known author of all time". Posthumously, the Los Angeles City Council named a part of the street close to the headquarters of Scientology in , as recognition of Hubbard.
Ron Hubbard Centennial Day. In , eighteen years after Hubbard's death, the Church claimed eight million followers worldwide. According to religious scholar J. Gordon Melton , this is an overestimate, counting as Scientologists people who had merely bought a book. Every Church of Scientology maintains an office reserved for Hubbard, with a desk, chair and writing equipment, ready to be used. Kliever notes that Hubbard was "the only source of the religion, and he has no successor". Hubbard is referred to simply as "Source" within Scientology and the theological acceptability of any Scientology-related activity is determined by how closely it adheres to Hubbard's doctrines.
The RTC is the central organization within Scientology's complex corporate hierarchy and has put much effort into re-checking the accuracy of all Scientology publications to "ensur[e] the availability of the pure unadulterated writings of Mr. Hubbard to the coming generations". The Danish historian of religions Mikael Rothstein describes Scientology as "a movement focused on the figure of Hubbard". He comments: "The fact that [Hubbard's] life is mythologized is as obvious as in the cases of Jesus , Muhammad or Siddartha Gotama. This is how religion works. Scientology, however, rejects this analysis altogether, and goes to great lengths to defend every detail of Hubbard's amazing and fantastic life as plain historical fact.
According to Rothstein's assessment of Hubbard's legacy, Scientology consciously aims to transfer the charismatic authority of Hubbard to institutionalize his authority over the organization, even after his death. Hubbard is presented as a virtually superhuman religious ideal just as Scientology itself is presented as the most important development in human history. Bromley of the University of Virginia comments that the real Hubbard has been transformed into a "prophetic persona", "LRH", which acts as the basis for his prophetic authority within Scientology and transcends his biographical history.
Hubbard is viewed as having made Eastern traditions more accessible by approaching them with a scientific attitude. Hubbard, although increasingly deified after his death, is the model Operating Thetan to Scientologists and their founder, and not God. Hubbard then is the "Source", "inviting others to follow his path in ways comparable to a Bodhisattva figure" according to religious scholar Donald A. Scientologists refer to L. Ron Hubbard as "Ron", referring to him as a personal friend. In the late s two men began to assemble a picture of Hubbard's life. Michael Linn Shannon, a resident of Portland, Oregon, became interested in Hubbard's life story after an encounter with a Scientology recruiter.
Over the next four years he collected previously undisclosed records and documents. Shannon's findings were acquired by Gerry Armstrong , a Scientologist who had been appointed Hubbard's official archivist. Garrison, a non-Scientologist who had written two books sympathetic to Scientology, to write an official biography. However, the documents that he uncovered convinced both Armstrong and Garrison that Hubbard had systematically misrepresented his life. Garrison refused to write a "puff piece" and declared that he would not "repeat all the falsehoods they [the Church of Scientology] had perpetuated over the years".
He wrote a "warts and all" biography while Armstrong quit Scientology, taking five boxes of papers with him. The Church of Scientology and Mary Sue Hubbard sued for the return of the documents while settling out of court with Garrison, requiring him to turn over the nearly completed manuscript of the biography. Breckenridge ruled in Armstrong's favor, saying:. The evidence portrays a man who has been virtually a pathological liar when it comes to his history, background and achievements. The writings and documents in evidence additionally reflect his egoism, greed, avarice, lust for power, and vindictiveness and aggressiveness against persons perceived by him to be disloyal or hostile.
At the same time it appears that he is charismatic and highly capable of motivating, organizing, controlling, manipulating and inspiring his adherents.
He has been referred to during the trial as a "genius," a "revered person," a man who was "viewed by his followers in awe. In November , the British journalist and writer Russell Miller published Bare-faced Messiah , the first full-length biography of L. He drew on Armstrong's papers, official records and interviews with those who had known Hubbard including ex-Scientologists and family members.
The book was well-received by reviewers but the Church of Scientology sought unsuccessfully to prohibit its publication on the grounds of copyright infringement. Ron Hubbard, Messiah or Madman? Hagiographical accounts published by the Church of Scientology describe Hubbard as "a child prodigy of sorts" who rode a horse before he could walk and was able to read and write by the age of four.
However, contemporary records show that his grandfather, Lafayette Waterbury, was a veterinarian , not a rancher, and was not wealthy. Hubbard was actually raised in a townhouse in the center of Helena. While some sources support Scientology's claim of Hubbard's blood brotherhood, other sources say that the tribe did not practice blood brotherhood and no evidence has been found that he had ever been a Blackfeet blood brother. According to Scientology biographies, during a journey to Washington, D.
Navy psychoanalyst and medic. Scientology texts present Hubbard's travels in Asia as a time when he was intensely curious for answers to human suffering and explored ancient Eastern philosophies for answers, but found them lacking.