David Potter tells the story of Theodora by recounting the writings of historians famous in her lifetime. This makes for some very ironic, suspicious and avid reading as the reader faces many accounts that were probably not true but which reveal a modicum of the truth amid the exaggerations and outright falsities. Procopius was one such writer who speculates that Theodora opened a home for former prostitutes because she was one in her younger years.
His accounts seem to place an unduly large amount of space denigrating her and at times reveal prurient texts and scenes that perhaps say more about him than the object of his writing. Yes, she later opened a home for former prostitutes who would be able to learn a career that would not place them in so much danger. Another writer treats her with exaggerated respect and his treatment almost seems like a biography of a different, wholly loved and honored historical ruler. A large part of the book is concerned with the Chalcedonian and anti-Chalcedonian factions concerned with interpreting the nature of Jesus Christ as fully divine or partly divine and partly human.
Theodora had a great deal to do with lessening the conflicts and potential violence always waiting to explode. Although this is a biography of Theodora, it is also an explication of the culture and history of the Byzantine era. The Trail of Tears is a name given to the ethnic cleansing and forced relocation of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian removal Act of Many Native Americans suffered from exposure, disease and starvation on the route to their destinations. Many died, including 2,, of 16, relocated Cherokee, European Americans both Christians and Jews , and African American freedmen and slaves also participated in the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee Creek and Seminole forced relocations.
Nearly 17, Choctaws made the move to what would be called Indian Territory and then later Oklahoma. About 2,, died along the trail of tears. Since the early 20th century, the global air and sea surface temperature has increased about 0. Human activity since the Industrial Revolution has increased the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide. These levels are much higher than at any time during the last , years. Direct geological evidence indicates that CO2, values higher than this were last seen about 20 million years ago.
This is likely the first time CO2, levels have been this high for about 4.
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They were found on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, from which they derive their name. The texts are written in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Nabataean, mostly on parchment, but with some written on papyrus and bronze. The Dead Sea Scrolls were discovered in a series of twelve caves around the site known as Wadi Qumran near the Dead Sea in what is now the West Bank between and by the Bedouin people and archeologists. In partnership with Google, the Museum of Jerusalem is working to photograph the Dead Sea Scrolls and make them available to the public digitally, although not placing the images in the public domain, expected to be completed by A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake. An epidemic is an outbreak of a contractible disease that spreads through a human population. A pandemic is an epidemic whose spread a global. There have been many epidemics throughout history, such as the Black Death. The Bible code, also known as the Torah code, is a purported set of secret messages encoded within the Hebrew text of the Torah.
This hidden code has been described as a method by which specific letters from the text can be selected to reveal an otherwise obscured message. The primary method by which purportedly meaningful messages have been extracted is the Equidistant Letter Sequence ELS. Buoyed by a desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto, on April 21, , ending the revolution. The resolution effectively banned the taking of prisoners of war: in this period of time, captured pirates were executed immediately. Just before daylight on March 4, part of the Texian force broke through Mexican lines and entered the Alamo.
By a. Mexican soldiers inspected each corpse, bayoneting anybody that moved. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition, which was under Papal control. This regulation of the faith of the newly converted was intensified after the royal decrees issued in and ordering Jews and Muslims to convert or leave Spain. The body was under the direct control of the Spanish monarchy. It was not definitively abolished until Estimates of the number of persons charged with crimes by the Inquisition range up to , with 2, to 50, people actually executed.
These city-states ruled the area in and around the Valley of Mexico from until they were defeated by the Spanish conquistadores and their native allies under Hernan Cortes in By the time the Spanish arrived in , the lands of the Alliance were effectively ruled from Tenochtitlan, and the other partners in the alliance had assumed subsidiary roles.
The alliance waged wars of conquest and expanded rapidly after its formation. At its height, the alliance controlled most of central Mexico as well as some more distant territories within Mesoamerica. Rulers of conquered cities were usually left in power as long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the alliance or provided military support in wars with enemy states. Understanding Quantum entanglement, Teleportation and wormholes.
Forward and backward time travel. Is Faster-than-light travel possible? The Grandfather Paradox. Effect of gravity and Spacetime. The Tripler Cylinder. Parallel Universes. Time dilation. And suspended animation.
A reader of
The G. Eternalism or Four-Dimensionalism. Recent experimentations. The Dust Bowl, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US and Canadian prairies during the s; severe drought. The drought came in three waves, , , and Rapid mechanization of farm implements, especially small gasoline tractors and widespread use of the combine harvester, significantly impacted decisions to convert and grassland to cultivated cropland.
The unanchored soil turned to dust that the prevailing winds blew away in clouds that sometimes blackened the sky. More than , Americans were left homeless. Between and , approximately 3. In just over a year, over 86, people migrated to California. Interior Secretary Harold L.
Ickes established the Soil Erosion Service in August The name Kristallnacht comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after Jewish-owned stores, buildings, and synagogues had their windows smashed. At least 91 Jews were killed in the attacks, and 30, were arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps.
Jewish homes. Over 1, synagogues were burned and over 7, Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged. It marked the beginning of the Final Solution and The Holocaust. The Gettysburg Address is a speech by U. President Abraham Lincoln. It came to be regarded as one of the greatest speeches in American history. Extrasensory perception or ESP involves reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses but sensed with the mind.
Psychic abilities such as telepathy and clairvoyance, and their trans-temporal operation as precognition or retrocognition. ESP is also sometimes referred to as a sixth sense. Parapsychology is the study of paranormal psychic phenomena, including ESP. Memory was offered as a better model of psi than perception.
Meta-analyses evidencing reliable effects, and many confirmatory replication studies. The Republic. Atlantis eventually falls out of favor with the gods and famously submerges into the Atlantic Ocean. The Theosophists believed that the civilization of Atlantis reached its peak between 1,, and , years ago but destroyed itself through internal warfare.
The Book of Mormon is a sacred text of the Latter Day Saint movement, which adherents believe contains writings of ancient prophets who lived on the American continent from approximately BC to AD Joseph Smith said that when he was seventeen years of age an angel of God named Moroni appeared to him and said that a collection of ancient writings, engraved on golden plates by ancient prophets, was buried in a nearby hill in present-day Wayne County, New York. It proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the ten states that were still in rebellion, thus applying to 3.
The Proclamation did not compensate the owners, did not itself outlaw slavery, and did not make the ex-slaves called freedmen citizens. It made the eradication of slavery an explicit war goal, in addition to the goal of reuniting the Union. Prior to the Proclamation, in accordance with the Fugitive Slave Act of , escaped slaves were either returned to their masters or held in camps as contraband for later return.
The Emancipation Proclamation outraged white Southerners who envisioned a race war. Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, one of the most famous sites in the world. It is in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds.
Archaeologists believe it was built anywhere from BC to BC. The dating of cremated remains found on the site indicates that deposits contain human bone from as early as BC. The site is a place of religious significance and pilgrimage in Neo-Druidry. In a team of archaeologists, led by Professor Mike Parker Pearson, excavated more than 50, cremated bones of 63 individuals buried at Stonehenge.
Roman coins and medieval artifacts have all been found in or around the monument. A decapitated 7th century Saxon man was excavated from Stonehenge in The number of people killed as a result has been estimated at between , to 1. The starting date is conventionally held to be 24 April The majority of Armenian diaspora communities around the world came into being as a direct result of the genocide.
After the Russo-Turkish War of , the Armenians increasingly came to see the Russian Empire as the ultimate guarantor of their security. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, commonly known as the Knights Templar, were among the most wealthy and powerful of the Western Christian military orders and were among the most prominent actors of the Christian finance. The organization existed for nearly two centuries during the middle Ages. When the Holy Land was lost, support for the Order faded. King Philip, who was already deeply in debt to the Templars from his war with the English, decided to seize upon the rumors for his own purposes, as a way of freeing himself from his debts.
De Molay reportedly remained defiant to the end. Pope Clement died only a month later, and King Philip died in a hunting accident before the end of the year. Paranormal is a general term coined c. It can best be thought of as a subset of pseudoscience. Paranormal phenomena include extrasensory perception ESP , telekinesis, ghosts, poltergeists, life after death, reincarnation, faith healing, human auras, and so forth. The most notable paranormal beliefs include those that pertain to ghosts, extraterrestrial life, unidentified flying objects and cryptids. In , the Parapsychological Association was formed as the preeminent society for parapsychologists.
The James Randi Educational foundation offers a prize of a million dollars to a person who can prove that they have supernatural or paranormal abilities under appropriate test conditions. Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard , beginning in as a successor to his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. Hubbard characterized Scientology as a religion, and in incorporated the Church of Scientology in Camden, New Jersey.
Scientology teaches that people are immortal beings who have forgotten their true nature. The church is often characterized as a cult, and it has faced harsh scrutiny, include brainwashing and routinely defrauding its members. In a church official claimed 3. The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II, for the prosecution of prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg, Germany. The Tribunal was given the task of trying 23 of the most important political and military leaders of the Third Reich.
Not included were Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Joseph Goebbels, all of whom had committed suicide several months before the indictment was signed. Some German war crimes defendants were tried at Nuremberg, and 1, others were tried under the traditional channels of military justice. Twelve of the accused were sentenced to death, seven received prison sentences, three were acquitted, and two were not charged.
Civilization generally refers to state polities which combine these basic institutions, having one or more of each a ceremonial center, a system of writing and a city.
Civilization concentrates power, extending human control over both nature, and over other human beings. The emergence of civilization is generally associated with the final stages of the Neolithic Revolution, a slow cumulative process occurring independently over many locations between 10, and 3, BCE, culminating in the relatively rapid process of state formation, a political development associated with the appearance of a governing elite.
Jihad is carried out in order to achieve the ultimate goal of Islam: To establish Islamic authority over the whole world. Islam is not just a religion.
The focus of jihad is to overcome people who do not accept Islam. Those who reject Islam must be killed. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the Arabs constitute a single nation. When the Ottoman Empire surrendered in , the United Kingdom refused to keep to the letter of its arrangements with Hussein. Abdallah of Jordan dreamed of uniting Syria, Palestine, and Jordan under his leadership in what he would call Greater Syria.
This distrust was one of the principal reasons for the founding of the Arab League in The Arab defeat by Israel in the Six Day War and the inability of pan-Arabist governments to generate economic growth severely damaged the credibility of pan-Arabism as a relevant ideology. Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory. It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.
The European colonial period was the era from the 16th century to the midth century when several European powers established colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. The European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries ended with the national liberation movements of the s. The Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire and Austrian Empire existed at the same time as the above empires, but did not expand over oceans.
The Empire of Japan modeled itself on European colonial empires. After World War II, decolonization progressed rapidly. His Mathnawi, composed in Konya, may be considered one of the purest literary glories of the Persian language. Rumi was born to native Persian-speaking parents, originally from the Balkh city of Khorasan, in present-day Afghanistan.
He lived most of his life under the Persianate Seljuq Sultanate of Rum, where he produced his works and died in AD. He was buried in Konya and his shrine became a place of pilgrimage. What lies beyond the farthest star? How was the universe created? What happened before the beginning of time? This would complete the cosmic quest begun by Einstein in the s to unify gravitation with the other known forces. Astronomers, when they probe the heavens are awed by the fact that the light they are receiving was emitted by stars billions of years ago.
In the time before Newton, scientists believed that the universe was perfectly ordered and structured. By the s, however, with the turmoil leading up to the birth of relativity and quantum mechanics, physics seemed confused and chaotic. Now we seem to be returning to one original idea — an orderly universe. The superstring theory shows that symmetry plays a pivotal role in physics. Many possible universes that are compatible with relativity can be constructed.
Zoroastrianism, also called Zarathustrianism, is an ancient semi-dualistic monotheist religion of Greater Iran. It was adopted in differing forms as the generally inclusive overarching state religion of the Achaemenes Empire and subsequent Parthian and Sasanian Empires, lending it immense prestige in ancient times.