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How can fiction and other texts use these viewpoints to offer inventive solutions that even the most astute non-fiction analyses cannot see or suggest? The Grenelle agreements proletarianized the white-collar workforce, endowing them with a consciousness of being employees and subject to the vagaries of labor policy, and thus spurring them to unionize.

Beinstingel maintains that the awareness that the white-collar class developed of their status as workers made it possible for them to see the inconsistencies and falsehoods of neoliberal managerial discourse, allowing authors to narrativize this awareness as a source of tension and discontent in workplace fiction.

Paris: Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, Some novels even portray the occupational and personal struggles of the unemployed. Indeed, literary representations of workers struggling, suffering, and starving, or searching for pleasure in everyday life, have endured since the 19th century. These cultural productions include fiction, philosophy, and theory, but also songs, journalism, manifestoes, and ephemera such as desk calendars with one suggestion per day for avoiding work.

Since the industrial era, theories and fiction of work, everyday life, and indeed of dissatisfaction with both of these, have used the daily routines of modernity and capitalism as jumping-off points for discussions of and the public and private experiences and optics of human subjectivity, identity, sensibility, and socioeconomic existence. Whence workplace fiction? The theoretical, philosophical, and artistic roots of contemporary literature and culture of labor, dissatisfaction, and consumerism Debates and theories of appropriate ways to balance work and leisure have been part of French intellectual culture for well over five centuries.

This realism grew up alongside a new strain of 19th-century Continental philosophy that considered the subject as worker and political movements promoting the idea that class struggle and class identity are crucial to the pursuit of subjective fulfillment and well-being. Paris: Folio Sagesses, Je ne ferai rien. Goncourt, Edmond and Jules de. Paris, Henri Oriol : Reprinted in Paris: Editions Allia, Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert. This was especially true within the theories of Marx, Engels, and the Marxist theorists who followed them.

However, the left has been in wide agreement since the 19th century that labor suffers under capitalism and that consumerism is a distraction 19 P. Rojek, Chris. Capitalism and Leisure Theory. London: Routledge, The sociology that emerged in the late nineteenth century, such as that of Auguste Comte, examined the notion of the subject in relation to, or as being formed or deformed, by capitalist ideology, looking for the self that must be made up of something more than the desire to work and consume.

Yet, at the same time, sociologists from Comte to Bourdieu among others have argued that capitalist ideology, as well as the material conditions and social roles that reify it, do leave a deep impression on us. This epistemological category of productive, active subjectivity coevolved with a burgeoning cultural interest in creating representations of workers and laboring bodies on the job, and thus also of the exploitation and alienation of the working class, within literature, visual art, and popular song.

Representation of working-class life, including its workplaces and tasks alongside its more intimate portrayals of domestic spaces and the inner lives of its characters, also allowed the realist art of the 19th century and beyond to relate the personal to the political. Allen, James Smith. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, In this way, it was better able to represent women, foreign subjects, and subaltern classes with nuance than prior French literature had been. Protagonists could be seen working, doing housework, writing letters, eating, sleeping, shopping, making love, drinking themselves into madness, or burying their dead.

Realist works of art explored individual tastes, thoughts, and desires as metonymy or antinomy of the social, material, objective world outside. This aestheticization of the interplay 22 P. George Steiner.

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New York: Harper, Stanford: Stanford University Press, As scholar Michael Sheringham noted, this 19th-century artistic interest in the interaction between in the interior self and the exterior, social movements of the workplace, the street, and the marketplace was evident in realist literature and art. However, in the late 19th century, these domestic images and spaces became central to the palette that artists and 24 Sheringham also argues that this interest in everyday life is manifest within symbolism, surrealism, and the avant-garde movements of the early 20th century.

See: Sheringham, Michael. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Like realism, symbolism, and decadent writing, 20th century modernism explored social codes and the trappings of the material world in relation to individuation. Modernist prose and poetry underscored this relationship between interior subjective experience and the material world. In modernist works, everyday objects represented routine, banality, and familiarity, while also offering visible allegories of the unfamiliar, newly broadened sense of knowledge and experience of the world that modern subjects acquired as they encountered the new technology and sciences.

Surrealism, while remaining engaged with a similarly materialist sensibility in its representations of modern subjective experience, worked to evade the expected, rational use of language, narrative causality, and the objects of the material, objective, physical world. There, too, are crossroads where ghostly signals flash from the traffic, and inconceivable connections and analogies between events are the order of the day.

Benjamin, Walter. Edmund Jephcott. New York: Schocken, These portraits of everyday life often attempt to point up the absurdity or insufficiency of hegemonic, normative ideas of subjects finding all the satisfaction that they need in labor, consumerism, leisure, and interactions with media. Therefore, it is crucial to our examination of contemporary fiction on labor, consumerism, dissatisfaction, and the search for subjective fulfillment in everyday life that we identify the wider body of historical movements and works of fiction on these themes.

The literature, art, and culture of the Trente Glorieuses represented everyday life as a means of thinking and acting against the banality and alienation engendered by the consumer culture of the era. In addition to replying to, and often contradicting, other secondary texts that discuss at least some of the authors in my corpus, I also draw my critical lens from philosophical, historical, and sociological texts presenting theories of everyday life, work, leisure, and subjectivity.

Before proceeding to my chapter introductions, I would like to discuss the texts with which and authors with whom I am in dialogue in this dissertation. Marxists since the 19th century have written extensively about how labor conditions us. Arendt takes Marxism to task for limiting the definition of work to labor, which she argues is mirrored in consumption — we work to buy disposable, consumable things, eat or use them up, then we go to work and begin the cycle anew.

But what of creating objects of lasting worth, from heirloom crafts to texts? How did homo faber and homo oeconomicus — man the maker and man the economic subject — as well as a focus on production and property overtake the importance of other work, including creating art? Arendt argued for a new idea of human endeavors that condition the world: work, which produces durable objects and works of art; the labor that creates less permanent goods, and the social and political action that builds the world through its communities.

Structuralism and poststructuralism are just as important a part of the theorizing of everyday life as Marxist and Marxian theory in the 20th century. Accordingly, my discussion of the literature directly following the heyday of those theoretical turns uses structuralism and poststructuralism to examine how language and texts aim to challenge power or style themselves as threats to power just as they metaphorize and aestheticize material reality. Instead, Barthes helps to consider the authorial strategies of using provocative texts to command attention and destabilize discourses of power which can be very effective when an author lacks power, agency, or social capital, as the punks do.

While specific economic theories are not extensively cited in the fiction and other texts in my chapters, I found reflections of numerous economic and sociological theories in these cultural productions. Although my dissertation strives to fill a gap by offering new viewpoints on much- discussed texts or approaching texts previously unaddressed in scholarship, French Studies scholarship on other modern and contemporary works does inform my analysis.

Houellebecq and Beigbeder are also fans of punk; Houellebecq has collaborated on musical projects with Iggy Pop, the former singer of proto- punk band The Stooges. Beigbeder edited the diaries of famed French punk journalist and scene guru Alain Pacadis for publication. In addition to work, labor, and creativity, punk and the fantastical genres hover around the sensibilities of my entire corpus.

What, indeed, is punk fiction but an attempt to diagnose sociological ills in the world of capitalism and work, and an effort to imagine a utopian solution in punk culture and identity — itself a fantastical project of sorts? Finally, one last work functions as my silent dialogic counterpart throughout the entire dissertation. I find this fascinating as a tendency in a book that is ostensibly about a real-life problem and not about literature representing this problem.

I did not set out to refute Maier by using some of these same texts in my corpus or in my critical apparatus. Unlike Maier, I find that even the most cynical of these texts either blatantly offer, or at least hint at more interesting alternatives to continuing to work in a system that many of us find unpleasant and unfair.

So, although I am not directly responding to Corrine Maier in my chapters, I am responding to a strain of cynical discourse on work, everyday life, capitalism, ethics, subjectivity, and satisfaction that her work crystallizes. Yet all of the works in this corpus owe tremendous debts to the modes of representing everyday life that came before them, especially to the literary avant-gardes. Costes and Campredon show the sinister side of the magique- circonstentielle with their grotesque, monstrous bosses and slave drivers exploiting ceremonial magic to find their fortune.

Critique of Cynical Reason. Michael Eldred. Foreword by Andreas Huyssen. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, Aside from examining those novels, I look at how the two authors fashion caricatural literary personas for themselves in interviews, essays, autofiction, and other types of interactions with the media and their audience. By looking at these two moralists wearing the garb of cynics, who enjoy creating cagey ambiguity as to their own beliefs by playing games with their reputations and identifications in their writing and in the press, I show how the authors represent social and moral decay as a type of economic critique.

I also ask why both authors implicate creative work as the behavior of everyday life that holds the most potential for subjective fulfillment. To address labor, work, the work of art, the role of creativity in work, and the interplay between our identity as workers and as political or philosophical subjects, Kuperman and Gauz deploy an arsenal of literary constraints, innovations, and styles.

Punkness or, in French, punkitude is not merely an aesthetic category or a style of music and dress. Punkitude is also a polyvalent discursive tendency that takes pleasure in defining itself through textuality and language; to self- define, punkitude contrasts punk individuality, autodidactic creation, self-determination, DIY do it yourself production and distribution with authoritarianism, conformity, and capitalism. What power does one reclaim from capitalist hegemony and authoritarianism by identifying oneself in their own terms and creating art outside the artistic and literary establishment?

I also explore how these texts embed sociological discourse and analysis in their works alongside aesthetic innovation and experimentation, as well as new ideals for happier everyday living. In this chapter, I consider how departing from verisimilitude emphasizes the strangeness, alienation, and monstrosity of working and unemployment in the neoliberal 21st century, thus allowing fantastical or non-realist fiction to illuminate an otherwise invisible affective dimension of contemporary life.

Bridging from the punk cultural productions of Chapter 3 into literature that takes certain aesthetic cues from punk, noise, and DIY culture without identifying explicitly with the punk scene, I return to the problematic of French cultural productions that identify as, or are identified by others as trash. Only when we have identified the source of our dissatisfaction can we consider what might give us true subjective, political and philosophical, creative and vocational and social satisfaction.

I invite you to approach this corpus of dissatisfaction with me as the first step to demanding a better world through art — not by envisioning improbable fictional utopias, but by insisting that everyday life can remain ordinary, but also marvelous, and simply much better for us all. March 8 Accessed 10 June See also: Maury, Pierre. Accessed 29 May While despairing at the preponderance of tertiary sector labor in post-industrial France, these writings praise the meaningful work of artisanal trades and artists. Finally, their self-conscious narrators and protagonists juxtapose portraits of desultory consumerism with scenes in which characters lack motivation to work.

Paris: Flammarion, See: Marcuse, Herbert. Essay on Liberation. Boston: Beacon, See also: Ross, Kristin. Chicago: U of Chicago Press, To parallel this reading, I propose a critical apparatus informed by their allusion to Marxian theories. Since these novels engage with social sciences and humanities discourses, but are not scientific writings, I read these references as oppositional aesthetic strategies as well as challenges to capitalist ideology.

Houellebecq and Beigbeder experiment also 31 In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle insisted that both theoretical intellectual and practiced moral virtue were aspects of building ethos or reputation and using ethos as a rhetorical strategy. Nicomachean Ethics. Terence Erwin. Cambridge, MA: Hackett, Neonaturalism and nihilism: Why we work, why we consume… and why even bother? Their novels question which social, psychological, cultural, biological, and material needs motivate humans to work. See also: Viard, Bruno. Les tiroirs de Michel Houellebecq.

Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, See: Sweeney, Carole. The Human Condition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Octave despises his job and what he becomes the longer he works in his industry, explaining to his reader that he wants to get fired, collect a generous pension, and have a happier life. These contrasts between sense of virtue and practice allow the narratives to contrast, and evaluate, different types of labor. For instance, Octave, who has recently ended his marriage, has taken up the company of Tamara, a beautiful and kind Beurette escort who is working to buy a home for herself and her family in Morocco.

Although Tamara is a sex worker, Octave describes her as loyal and responsible — in short, she is virtuous — and thus will only kiss her. Tamara tells Octave about her work, and is truthful when she leaves Octave to visit another client; she, and her job, are portrayed as more honest than Octave and his work. Octave promises to help Tamara retire sooner and improve the culture of advertising by casting her in a commercial for a dairy dessert. However, in this environment, Octave begins to crack, and so does his colleague Charlie, who murders a Palm Beach corporate billionaire in her home with Octave and Tamara in tow.

Qui pourrit le monde? Octave knows that his work hurts women; not only does he sexually exploit the models and encourage them to objectify themselves in advertising campaigns to make money, he is aware that he is quite literally inculcating women with toxic notions of beauty. Orlov then sells the breast milk and tears to the Russian elite. Au secours pardon thus creates a fable of the misery and dwindling prospects for employment in the post-industrial world. One Dimensional Man. With this reminder that depicting labor entails showing humans producing and plying goods, Jed conceives of a technique — a way of working — representing creative labor as a human activity in his own artwork, a painted portrait of Houellebecq.

I solation, madness and death are the result s of the failure or refusal to invest wholeheartedly in this system of exchange… and the idea of self as a thing. Sweeney, Carole. Michel Houellebecq and the literature of despair. London: Bloomsbury, However, in doing so, they offer an essentializing view of social and economic dynamics in which men are all greedy and immoral and women are their virtuous victims.

Marxist theories since Marx have performed a similar task of representing and criticizing work in its ever-shifting forms. Even though he initially imagined an industrialized, completely automated world without labor, Marx rarely discussed work as a process with individual and durable ends and end products rather than constant churning of the machine of production. Debord, Guy. Paris: Buchet-Chastel, In this way, their novels dismiss profit as the motivating force for work, suggesting that the desires to invent, innovate, and engage in world-changing or world-building through labor and work may guide us toward fulfillment.

Work that denies and frustrates the human need to create, while also denying the value of human life in general, is shown as dangerous to individuals and society. After the spectacular failure of his last relationship, he has been single for two years; he has no contact with his family, and his only friend is an increasingly faithless preacher. After a nervous breakdown and two emotional outbursts at work, followed by a stay in a psychiatric hospital, the protagonist announces to his boss that he will be taking leave for depression.

The death of his colleague Tisserand, who finally resigned himself to the idea that his wealth and social status cannot buy him love and happiness, underscores this gap between theories of human happiness and the practices — relationships, family, and creativity — that create real happiness.

Her family are former pig farmers who sold their unprofitable farm and became well-off property owners. Ils produisaient. A trip to Cuba brings him closer to his answer. However, Michel of Plateforme first changes the world grotesquely. For Jed, his motivation to work is an almost mystical vocation. However, before he dies, Jean-Pierre reveals to Jed that he always saw himself not as a businessman, but an artist. Since Octave responds to these citations and figures cynically or elegiacally rather than rationally, contrasting them with the post-Cold War world and his ignoble behavior, 99F and Au secours pardon trade in a post-Marxist aesthetics rather than a critical perspective.

The refusal to share human existence, or to believe that human needs are important, leads to a lack of motivation to work, as well as to an inability to engage with other humans through meaningful art. Elle va mourir. Their meeting at Cannes allows them to play-act the role of the artist with none of the satisfaction of creating lasting art. Without creativity, we all suffer; with creativity, we know what it is to be human.

Quel contraste avec le pouvoir absolu, miraculeux, de la lecture! In a self-reflexive gesture, they have also 98 Houellebecq has been awarded a Goncourt for his novel La carte et le territoire and national literary prizes in Ireland and Spain, among other awards. Octave and memorialist Beigbeder both mention family homes in Pau. Beigbeder and Octave both work as advertising copywriters, are beleaguered by a reputed cocaine addiction, have both established literary prizes and worked on the presidential campaign of a Parti Communiste candidate which Beigbeder did for Robert Hue in Paris: Grasset, Paris : Grasset, Durand, Alain-Philippe.

Amsterdam: Rodopi, Beigbeder has also drawn negative attention for notorious episodes in his personal life, some of which he has made into often comical and self-deprecating fodder for his fiction. This undignified acting-out, followed by his night in jail awaiting bail, drew widespread ridicule in the press. Accessed 22 July Grasset, Foucault, Michel. Votre souffrance dope le commerce.

Octave is sketching a caricatural self-portrait, and he is as aware as Beigbeder is of his blurring of narrative positionality and ethical responsibility for the ills of advertising.

Pour une histoire du genre testimonial

These apostrophes sometimes take a more opaque form, but also can be playful. Octave explains that in addition to narrating his life from his first-person perspective, he is also writing a novel denouncing the advertising industry, which will perform the work of criticism and sabotage that Octave longs to do but cannot in his paid work. The reader must wonder whether Octave is thus claiming to be the author of the novel they are reading, or the author of a different novel, which they may not ever read.

Furthermore, the reader could wonder whether the slippage between writing styles in 99F demarcates the division between two novels. The prose, too, veers between a straightforward narrative style and a disjointed style that resembles experimental verse. Octave and Jean-Jacques both insist that the reader acknowledge their awareness of their ethical failings. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, The citation is from ASP p. Reyns-Chikuma, C h ris.

Contient nouveaux essais critiques. Paris: Seuil, In 99F, Octave goes to rehab after ending an unfaithful marriage and overdosing on cocaine; there, he restlessly and compulsively pens his novel and love poems never to be sent. As Octave narrates his remorse for sexually exploiting and objectifying the young Russian models, he dashes off florid and remorseful couplets for each of them. Octave sees Lena as supernaturally beautiful, cultivated and self- sacrificing, yet melancholic and often masochistic, an archetype congruent with the traditional image of women in Russian literature.

Lena admits that she learned the Baudelaire poem at school and blurted it out nervously. Her affinities are for techno parties and smoking joints with her friends rather than great literary works. She also describes her unhappy home life, her dislike of her prepubescent body, and her crushes on classmates. Octave objectifies Lena as a model, but also by making her into a literary character, fabricates a chimera that he worships instead of knowing Lena personally. Disturbed by his own sadistic sexual impulses, Octave starts visiting an Orthodox priest; in confessing his violent fantasies, he extends the metaphor of literary confession invoked in 99F.

Octave explains to his confessor that he was destined to be a writer rather than a corporate shill; writing literature would have obviated his descent into ignoble behavior. Octave ethos- See also: Heldt, Barbara. Terrible Perfection: Women and Russian Literature. Finally, an octave is a measure of aesthetic liminality, the interval between two musical notes. Octave narrates his own liminality between cold reality and aesthetic escapes into writing and art. Accessed 2 February In the Anglophone press as in the French, the work and the author received many backhanded compliments.

Adam Gopnik of the New Yorker wrote: less a novel than a n … eighteenth-century conte moral, at once a narrative and a philosophical essay, in which an obsession with oral sex oscillates strangely with fatuous ideological posturing… It is obscene, hateful, pretentious, half educated sic , funny, ambitious, and oddly moving… Writer conceives teh sic book as a sign of the moment when leftist thought passed from a real- world model to a permanent form of poetic dissent As further successes followed his subsequent novels, Houellebecq perpetuated this image by provoking his critics and readers with callous, often offensive statements about politics and religion.

Houellebecq faced, but ultimately was exonerated of charges of inciting racial violence in after discussing his depiction of Muslims in Plateforme and adding other unfavorable remarks on Islam in an interview in Lire. Although Houellebecq vehemently denied racism as a motivation in his trial and in numerous interviews, his comment about Islam is remarkable not only for its volatility, but for its strange repositioning of his judgment as literary criticism.

Authier, Christian. Le nouvel ordre sexuel. Paris: Editions Bartillat, Accessed 20 August Accessed 10 January So what really counts in both cases is who is the clergy, or middleman, or interpreter. Conscious that he is being observed, Houellebecq often frames his outlandish statements in interviews not as his own opinions, but as literary judgments from a passionate reader, writer, and critic.

Accessed 3 August Accessed 10 September Accessed 7 November Accessed 25 September Ennemis publiques. And I read it, pen in hand. The first is the idea of inserting himself as a character in his own novel. Michel Houellebecq speaks of himself, proclaiming himself an important author, translated throughout the world, unappreciated by critics and essentially misunderstood in his own time. Ben Jelloun, Tahar. Accessed 13 April Jed first sees a functional, productive, and passionate artist, but later encounters a depressive, drunken, maudlin wreck, who goes to bed at 4 p.

Van Wesemael, Sabine, ed. Amsterdam : Rodopi, Accessed 20 Feb. Accessed 5 March See: Chrisafis, Angelique. Probably, yes. Instead, the novel asks, and attempts to answer, a few other questions: What does art do besides produce material goods? Is the artist just a laborer? How can we represent labor? What portion of the artist — as person, and as a persona — can appear in their works? Is a public persona a work of meta-fiction? Conclusion: can work give relief?

In response to losing belief in the Marxist utopias still imagined in the mid- twentieth century, these novels represent how the post, post-Trente Glorieuses subject loses ethical relationships in a world being destroyed by capitalism instead of being built through meaningful work. The instrumentalist thinking of capitalism has devalued the type of work and action that generate beauty, art, and connections between people instead of profit.

Despite their highly cynical vision of Western society, these texts suggest to us that repetitive, self-consuming labor could become work again if we concern ourselves more with creativity, imagination, playfulness, and enjoyment in our working lives. Human relationships perverted by the capitalist imperatives to produce, consume, and profit, as well as by subjects who have lost their sense of P.

Maris, Bernard. When we deny the human need to reach outward toward others and care for ourselves through everyday actions and work s , life is miserable indeed. Through exercises of observation and reflection designed to keep himself awake during long shifts as a security guard, protagonist Ossiri theorizes unsatisfying jobs and consumerism as economic and social forces which simultaneously reinforce and reshape French identity. These novels portray work and everyday life in contemporary France from two different perspectives: from that of the white-collar, primarily white middle class, and from the viewpoint of working poor immigrants of color excluded from economic security.

Through their reflections on recent history, these works interrogate ideas of uniform Frenchness in the 21st century, while linking the struggle for political and personal emancipation to labor and creativity. Transformations to P. Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme, 2nd ed. Beinstingel, Thierry. John Marks has also pointed out that after being awarded the prize, Delphine de Vigan refused to accept it. The motivation to work. New York: Transaction Publishers, For sociological theories of why we work, see: Leonard, Nancy H.

Beauvais, and Richard W. Although work holds potential for creativity, conviviality, pro-social behavior, and philosophical and political emancipation, it is often decidedly unplayful. However, must this be the case? Can considering the value of play in work help us imagine workplace culture and economic systems that prioritize meeting human needs above accumulating capital?

Beyond French Feminisms

The novel Viart, Dominique. In: S Servoise ed. Special issue of Raison Publique 15 : 13— Accessed 5 July Kuperman, Nathalie. Notions of creativity and play as being ideologically didactic, and thus important, have been central to French anti-capitalist thought since the first socialist theories of education in the 19th century. Communard Paul Lafargue, as well as then-popular foreign theorists published in France such as Russian social anarchist Mikhail Bakunin, suggested that education can either subjugate or emancipate children, and believed that education should teach critical and creative skills as well as practical knowledge.

These ideas later found purchase in Marxist child psychology and pedagogical theory of the 20th century, in both the Soviet Union and the West. Pagis, Julie. Dammam, Dominique, et al. See: Albert, Michel. Capitalisme contre capitalisme. Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, See also: Teper, Bernard and Michel Zerbato. See also: Dardot, Pierre and Christian Laval. Louis Rougier et le Colloque Walter Lippmann de Dard, Olivier. Travaux d'histoire et de philosophie des sciences CS 7, , pp. Rousso, Henry. Cet esprit individualiste me fait le cafard. With some regrets, Muriel identifies diligent and talented editor Ariane Stein, with whom her once-friendly relationship has been strained since Ariane conceived her first child.

With her fabricated performance review of Ariane, Muriel chooses power over worker and feminist solidarity. However, by maintaining a system where women must choose between work and family, Muriel inadvertently assures that she will also hit the glass ceiling. After the colleagues move into their new office building the following Monday, they are disheartened to see that their offices are smaller, have no doors, and are designed to keep workers visible at all times.

Paris: Gallimard Folio Essais, The Wellness Syndrome. New York and London: Polity, Agathe, whose last name carries a possible evocation of an early French neoliberal loyal to an elitist totalitarian ideology, has not fared well in the battle of neoliberalism. Hahn, Harlan.

Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, Winning these games is neither a moral victory nor a professional success; it merely stands as proof that you are willing to cheat. In short, this paper explores the hypothesis that filmic borderlines are an emblematic delimitation of the reflection on the relevant questions, and, on the other hand, the idea that the spatial divisions which are inherent to these films can be seen as kaleidoscopical, though not necessarily matching, approaches to the same questions. Latino American culture, far from beeing homogeneous, is made up of a multitude of artistic expressions, that are different depending on their geography, nationality, gender and the degree of assimilation.

In order to articulate this margin, the language must be as diverse as the fragmented reality. Postmodernism, as a used concept, is replaced through performance, by direct intervention under the impulse of political and cultural strategies. This new culture of the frontier is not imposed from above but comes out organically from inside. He constantly redefines the notion of frontier , exposing those that are imposed and defined by the domination and the hegemony of American culture. He is particularly interested in revealing the authors and the writings attached to this multiculturalism.

Attacking the collective consciousness of his audience, he exposes the unsaid, he articulates a dialectic of fear and desire, of racism and phantasm. The body of the performer becomes a contact zone, a cartography of a negotiation of power. The spacial, territorial, linguistic marginality appears as the place of the greatest creative activity because to the logos is opposed a free loxos in contact with the world not impregnated by the concept Derrida, Marges. The Waste land by T. Marginality will seem not like a simple comfortable and skilful variation that aims to reintroduce anything original in language and thought, but as the indefinite suspension of all discursive artiefacts that aims to return, to the freshness of an originating of the world, without date, a source to the present.

I propose, for the purpose of my demonstration, to construct my analysis around one of his films, The Wind Will Blow Us Away , which recounts in a troubling manner moments tied to death, that improbable time that is situated at the edge of the life of darkness. Their project is to secretly film a documentary of the funeral ceremony of an old woman. But her slow death creates situations of waiting, plunging the characters into the anxious uncertainties of the in-between.

I am never far from one bank or the other of the river. Bonnefoy, Several margins are considered here. Those opening words of De Natura Hominis of Nemesius of Emesa, Syrian philosopher and physician of the IV th century, the extensive discussion of the authorities lingering on the perfection of the world and of the human being, could rather disappoint one who would love to find immediately our author moaning on human finitude. Every human activity raises up because of necessity, the world and its components were created for the human being, as a unity where transitions of a hierarchical level to another are arranged from the simplest, inanimate, to the rational level.

The difficulty which emerges here naturally concerns the means to assure the coexistence of those two doctrines, providing at the same time the preserving elements of the unity and human continuity inside the described hierarchy.

Actes de colloque | Primo Levi Centre

A minimal difference exists each time, difference ordering a creature after another, an animal after another, the same for the actions, but there is always a subtle passage from the inanimate to living beings. According to this continuity, the limits that separate them become imprecise and it turns out impossible to assign an intermediate shape to one or the other hierarchical level. The whole creation owes its continuity to the minimal differences that separate and unite all kinds nature of at the same time. But it was after the coming of young Janissaries, sons of Christians and Greek women, that the first interpreters populated the eastern world.

The fact that they learned to speak fluently three languages, Turkish, Arab and Persian, allowed them to serve western diplomacy in the East. From Greece to Constantinople, and from Smyrna to Baghdad and Alexandria, the drogmans opened the roads towards the East by calling all their powers in the fields of trade and politics into play. The Phanariotes, their successors, contributed to the translation of the collected works of the French Encyclopaedists, as well as to the blooming of Culture within the South East of Europe.

This paper will trace the roads unveiled by Drogmans and will mainly point out their contribution to Language, Culture, and consequently to Frontier crossing. Gette is a borderland artist, playing on scientific and aesthetic boundaries to create works that pertain to photography, videography, sculpture and painting, nurtured both indoors and outdoors.

Frontières, marges et confins

This paper will analyse how P. Gette takes advantage of this in-between position, perplexing and disconcerting his spectator to create free zones where his imagination can roam boundlessly. Beyond a mere boundary, the edge becomes an in-between space fraught with contacts, interferences and ambiguity. Thus, the spectator is invited to transcend borderlines and to discover new horizons. What those works achieve is to lay bare the foundations of the colonial and apartheid regimes, i. This paper offers to concentrate more particularly on the scathing vision given of this myth of the frontier in J.

Greek writers of the first, second or even third generation living in diaspora are occasionally recognised as Greek writers as such when they write in Greek or when they address a subject concerning Hellenism, albeit only in part. But this does not automatically mean they are included in Neohellenic literature in the strict sense, the history of which is written in Athens and remains closely linked to the Greek state. Le nouveau roman de Ioan T. In the dramatic circumstances of the Greek Independence War , amidst the philhellenic movement, D. Solomos and A.

Calvos, two poets from Zante, educated in Italy, marked brilliant beginnings of Neohellenic literature, conscious now of its national spirit. Solomos in Athens, a new Greek centre, sacrifying numerous principles of the Ionian tradition that has now submitted itself to an ethnocentric concept. The adventure of her writing appears as a definite break-whose first stage was her early giving up of the English tongue -, as a trespassing of the frontiers of the self by delving into her own history in search of the hidden and the untold. A whole territory of the self is outlined, both confronting the writer with the confinement of her own exile and disclosing wider and wider areas of imagination in which geographical borderlines gradually dissolve.

Offering a blend of first-person narration and fairy-tale, this autobiographical vein gives birth to a hybrid genre which, chal- lenging most literary codes, is the main outlet of a wandering self desperately looking for his own territory, the homeland where all creation is made possible. Should this be considered as an outgrowth of the city? In this in-between territory how can the citizen think of himself as belonging to Paris? These are the questions we shall try to answer. Wah-to-Yah and the Taos Trail.

You can suggest to your library or institution to subscribe to the program OpenEdition Freemium for books. Feel free to give our address: contact openedition. We will be glad to provide it with information about OpenEdition and its subscription offers. Les valeurs purement spirituelles n'ont donc que. En , parut Contre la torture de Pierre-Henri Simon.

Puisque c'est sa force qui fait son droit, qu'il l'emploie donc contre moi. Le souvenir de l'entreprise d'extermination col-. Crisis ofwitnessing in literature, psychoanalysis and history, New York, Routledge, , p. Arcades, , p. L'ordre philosophique, , p. Paris, Pion, [], p. Points essais, , p.

Ceci en. III, Robert Burac. Victoire et frustrations , Paris, Le Seuil, coll. Points histoire, , p. Raymond Aron, Dimensions de la conscience historique, Paris, Pion, , p. Jean de Pierrefeu, Plutarque a menti, Paris, Grasset, , p.