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For the French and other Europeans, the true clown has a metaphysical, supra-referential essence, one which is evidenced by a great number of American artists and entertainers, such as the Marx Brothers, Charlie Chaplin, and Jerry Lewis, and which is not entirely grasped by the American public, critics, and scholars alike. The inauthentic, hyper-typical persona of the clown fails to develop a subjective identity and therefore short-circuits all forms of inter-subjectivity as well. American icons, both off and on the movie set. They have no real history,16 they belong to no identifiable national culture, and they share no common interest or goal besides money and some unexplained need to negotiate its acquisition.

Their actions, even those that inexplicably deliver them to the movie set in the final scene, are unmotivated. And has anyone ever heard a political speech without a joke? This is not without social, political, and uncultural consequence. But alone And they laugh and they laugh. This realization is intensified by the image and words at the very beginning of the scene noted above.

They are given some nonsensical directions to Goma The story concerns a young woman, Grace Nicole Kidman , on the run from mobsters, who winds up in the dead-end former mining town of Dogville, population After a second appearance of the law, Grace gets seriously violated.

She becomes a slave to the needs of the townspeople and a body for the sexually deprived male characters to relieve their frustrations some very disturbing rape scenes. When she attempts to escape with the ambivalent, wishy-washy assistance of Tom, she is chained and shackled and repeatedly harassed and raped. In the rather shocking conclusion of the story, the self-righteous townspeople learn that Grace had a secret, a very powerful and fatal one. While they knew she was a fugitive, they did not realize the all-powerful mobster boss she was fleeing was her father. On the order of their victim, they are all massacred by the mob.

Yet the filmmaker does with concentration, condensation, and static immobility--from a spatial point of view as well as from the point of view of the subjectivities of the characters--what the playwright has done with dispersion and displacement. While the hyperreality of the characters in Crazies hyperreal icons of American showbiz and business cultures functions primarily in the realm of the aesthetic, the characters of Dogville are primarily socially stigmatized hyper-types: stock figures from the American heartland, conscripted from the folk mythology of small-town Americana.

June is a cripple Chuck and Vera have seven children and they hate each other. They make a living from grinding the edges off cheap glasses to try to make them look expensive In the old stable Ben keeps his truck. He drinks and he visits the whorehouse once a month and he is ashamed of it. Martha she runs the mission house until the new preacher comes which will never happen.

That leaves Ma Ginger and Gloria. They run this really expensive store, where they exploit the fact that nobody leaves town. There is nothing organic about Dogville, where the centripetal forces of geo- and socio-centricity inflict substantial tears in the web of communal relationships. In Dogville, we are at the very core of American unculture, the black hole of a totalitarian, moralistic and moralizing, conformity.

Vertically isolated perched on a mountaintop , the town is completely, notoriously severed from the rest of America as well as from the world. Furthermore, the spectator is treated to one heck of a com-prehensive view of the isolated Dogvillian micropolis. The set, consisting of the streets, houses, stores, and meeting house of the town, is not built but simply suggested out of chalklines.

In response to this scenic design, the NY Times reviewer A. The relatively humorless, affectless characters are tragically aware that they are Dogvillians. Living alone together, so to speak, and unculturally in-bred, the density of their socio-centrism undermines any deep, differentially-defined, subjective identity. The resulting density in space and character identity is every bit as undifferentiated and hyperreal as the itinerant clowns in the vast desert of Zanskar. The American town is not deterritorialized, de- localized, or de-nationalized by virtue of the dispersed, extrinsic, non-distinct foreignness of its landscape and the supra-referential non-identity of its characters.

On the contrary, it is simultaneously Americanized and supra-globalized by virtue of the oppressive weight of its social landscape and its characters. Like Crazies, there is little explicit reference to the U. The only evident, direct reference to American culture is the quite unfestive communal dinner for the July 4th holiday. Life is reduced to a bare minimum and there is an extraordinary absence of reference to religion, to politics, and to pop culture sports, music, etc.

Reviewer A. Scott quoted above makes the following observation: What makes Dogville so fascinating, and so troubling, is the tension between the universal and the specific. But the clothes and folkways of Dogville harken unmistakably back to the land of John Steinbek, Mark Twain 20 Roland Barthes understood the divine universality supra-globality? The movie presents a curious blend of the alien and the familiar: it is a fantasy of America, but not an American fantasy.

Curiously, the European sensibility of the filmmaker suggests that the attitude and the behavior of post-Depression America hardly differs from those of America the superpower. The Dogvillians are socioculturally introverted and one-dimensional in the sense that their subjective identities are tied to the common denominator of their belonging to the town. A thorough analysis of space and characters in this film is well beyond the scope of this already lengthy essay.

So let me return to my focus on the theatrically reinforced presence of this space, a strategy the filmmaker employed to thrust the unculture of this non-community in the face of the international audience he expected. Despite the abstract quality of the set, the entire communal space is represented on stage, not just a building or two; it is uniquely and theatrically re presented as a space delimited only by the obscurity of its borders, and it is theatrically presented, or better ostended, to the audience.

Just as a man asking 21 In fact, Dogville is the first of a trilogy. The second in the series, Manderlay, which appeared in , takes place in the same historical timeframe.

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We are going to live together. Consequently, the simultaneous blend of realization and de-realization contributes to the hyperreality of Dogville: the absolute illusion of the cloistered, reclusive community. Exits from and entrances to the town, by Dogvillians as well as outsiders, are exceptionally limited.

As an additional theatrical device, Dogville uses a central character to essentially define the space. In this type of work, the primary character-function de-emphasizes the psychological to reveal the configuration and the content of space. At the very beginning of the movie, Tom Edison Jr. In Dogville, Grace embodies foreignness, one that only fits the local culture to the extent it can conform to it and be exploited by it. As the story progresses and it becomes evident that there are risks involved in the harboring of the fugitive, the townspeople seize the opportunity to significantly increase their share of the quid pro quo.

The story and the community undergo a number of structural shifts, all of which are remarked by the narrator and effected with respect to Grace. First, after a short period of social tension when the self-reliant townspeople insist they are in no need of any kind of help, Grace is accepted grudgingly and on a trial basis. Second, once the people realize the benefit of her labor, she is accepted openly, and, in scene 11, Grace tells Tom she really likes it in Dogville. She toils harder and for longer hours and less pay, and the men take a bonus dividend by repeatedly raping her.

Fourth, she is shackled and held prisoner after she attempts to escape. Little do they know that the Big Man head mobster or godfather is her father, who is trying to draw his daughter back to the life for which she was evidently destined: the supreme power to change the world, the power to punish. To the audience, however, it becomes manifestly clear that there are at least two significant differences. The film has a didactic dimension that the play does not, or at least one that Crazies conceals well below its recreational and ludic surface.

Their greatest crime was living too locally while thinking supra-globally. They refused to ponder the world without--not only Grace but all extra-Dogvillians-- on its own terms. A kind of hyperreality emerges from their uncultural, socio-centric belief in an American brand of utopia their claim to communitarianism , one that was self-invented, based as it was on the self-satisfaction derived from seeing themselves as good, honest, hardworking, simple folk who mind their own business. While the result is not quite the hyperreality of Disneyworld or Las Vegas, the irony of community is still missing, because the presumptuous, self-righteous individuals of the community have no doubts about who they are and what they and their community represent to the world.

In the grotesque utopia of Dogville there is a marked absence of self doubt. Living locally and attempting to write universally, Tom is also a spokesperson for the greater American community of today, the one whose self love prohibits it from thinking globally in the mode of world-totality, as Edouard Glissant might put it. We have to get habituated to the idea that if I can change my own identity by exchanging it with some Other, that does not mean that I will disappear as an identifiable person. It does not mean that I will disappear into some gaping hole.

Victor, a twelfth-century monk from Saxony. Despite some reservations stemming from his postmodern uncertainty, Baudrillard would concur with Glissant and Said. New York: Verso, The Eiffel Tower and Other Mythologies. Richard Howard. Berkeley: U of California P, Paul Foss, et al. New York: Semiotext e , Chris Turner. Paris: Ed. Elinor Fuchs and Una Chaudhuri. Ann Arbor: U of Michigan P, Lars von Trier. Lions Gate DVD, Bloomington: Indiana UP, Mosaic March The Words of Ghandi.

Richard Attenborough. New York: Newmarket Press, Durham, N. Tyler Stovall and Georges van den Abbeele. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, With Dominique Lacroix. Theatre program for Les Dingues de Knoxville.

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Les Dingues de Knoxville. Arles, France: Actes Sud, Dominque Bluzet. Jan Feb. New York: Simon and Schuster, New York: Penguin, Paris: Nathan, Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage, New York Times Online 21 March Democracy in America. George Lawrence. New York: Harper Collins, Me refiero a Thomas L. Pero esa resistencia no ha de sorprendernos. Heinrich Meyer and Consuelo Ahumada. Stanley Eitzen and Maxine Baca Zinn, eds. Globalization The Transformation of Social Worlds. Friedman, Thomas L. The World is Flat. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, Petras, James.

Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, Multiculturalism, Postcoloniality, and Transnational Media. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, Globalization: Capitalism and its Alternatives. New York: Oxford University Press, Kommentierte Werkausgabe Politische Schriften. Frankfurt a. In ibid. San Francisco: City Lights, , In our era of global iconic hygiene and systematic distortions of language and thought, poets, novelists, artists, translators, scholars, and teachers, all experts of how images and the written word can help us understand what it might mean to be human, have to co-create, share, and spread regional and global responsiveness.

When one of the few modern revolutions that we have in writing, the American Constitution, is reduced to friable and increasingly undecipherable fragments, it is useful to think through the hard questions of global citizenship. What happens to the citoyens of a fragile and fascinating minor planet when torture is unashamedly embraced and outsourced by power- and market-driven global players, and supinely covered up by complicit corporate media?

What kinds of joyfully self-surprising alliances are needed to strengthen ethical, aesthetic, and social literacies? Seriously playful dialogic approaches to crafting decolonized modes of perceptive solidarity, of ethics and aesthetics in unstoppable 3 Recent accounts of torture committed or outsourced by the United States include Alfred W. For example, not only victims of the Nazi regime, such as the social psychologist Erich Fromm, escaped to Latin America, founding a psychoanalytic movement in Mexico, but also the most wanted Nazi medical torturer and killer, Josef Mengele, found his way to Argentina, Paraguay, and Brazil, where he died, drowning in the ocean in Band Die politischen Schriften.

Eine Dokumentation. Dokumente und Kommentare zu Leben und Werk: Briefe 2 Here: p. Die Welt ist stumm. Indifferent to the suffering of others, indifferent to our own fate, indifferent to the self in the human being, to its soul. Because immersed into the unlimited with our dispersed self, and lacking any ego-boundaries, we have become a coldly magical unit, for the very reason that we have lost are void of any social bonds — coldy welded together in continuous irresponsibility and indifference.

Learning from, and working on the next chapters of traditions of breaking with tradition does not only necessitate revitalizations of democratic principles of accountability in all areas of public life, but also a thoroughly dialogic rethinking of conflicts, and of collusions between new beginnings in art and ethics. In order to examine the global grip of anesthetic compliance, it is useful to revisit oscillations between a radical interest in the unconscious and the desire to contribute to social justice, a palinodic thread that sustains the work of many modernist European writers.

Fruitful tensions between political advocacy on the one hand, and an emphasis on the radically experimental and temporarily unconscious nature of aisthesis on the other, provoked an unavoidably palinodic poetical praxis. The other word responds to the impossible.

Between these two movements, at once necessary and incompatible, there is a constant tension […]. Choix de lettres Michel Surya. Paris: Gallimard, Paris: Flinker, What we need to bring to the fore, in pluridisciplinary alliances of social sciences, the so-called humanities, and the arts, are ways to work through and overcome compliance and helplessness in the light of the gradually obliterated individual. Embracing the risk of being out of place, teachers, writers, painters, filmmakers, etc.

Can we overcome hermeneutic helplessness? Are we cultivating listening voices? It is useful and enriching to distinguish sharply between simply identifying and subsuming data under prefabricated rubrics, and the more risky and unpredictable undertaking of theoretical and ethical experiments, exploring and inhabiting a perspective whose consequences are not already calculated: Is it possible to resist not only emboldened racisms, but the temptation of a systemic regression into a self-absorbed realm of ob- literary studies?

Inviting and trying our hands and hearts and minds at sustained soundings of consumer complacency and media compliance, one of our jobs is to vigorously co-create a pedagogical praxis that nourishes lucid, self-critical minds and that emphasizes the reciprocity of pluridisciplinary research and inventive pedagogical praxis.

Stimulating the mutual sharpening of critical and creative thought, we can unapologetically contaminate sanitized discourses of indifference with the indispensable civic virtue of relentless dialogic curiosity. Rewriting mythological stories of torture and violation, and, so to speak, declassifying the Ovid files and its sources, still constitutes a highly promising aesthetic strategy whose ethical potential continues to appear inexhaustible.

Her reader is immediately pulled into the scenarios. Another Utler cycle has been dedicated to Kronos. But it is the myth of the flaying of Marsyas that runs through both of her last two poetry volumes. The reader becomes an eye and ear witness, exposed to acoustic and visual close-ups of the torture performed on Marsyas. According to Greek mythology, the satyr and flute virtuoso Marsyas challenges the god Apollo to a musical competition. Co-creating cultures takes dialogic courage. Open and perceptive conversations constitute a form of direct action.

To develop a voice that listens is an acutely needed art, which is threatened by extinction in an era of mediated interpassivity. Cultures can be usefully approached as, and in, multilayered dialogues to be reconfigurated and co-created in constant movement. Cultures cannot breathe without the sustained public praxis of a kind of perceptiveness that nourishes what F. For the sake of our physical, as well as our moral, intellectual, and creative survival, we urgently need plurigeneric aesthetic collaborations in search of the participatory project of global citizenship.

Affirmative acts of unwriting that embrace and invite post-mimetic ways of inventive listening, these texts are embedded in, and exposed to, each other. Gedichte, Vienna, Edition Korrespondenzen, Here: Across and along artificial geostrategic tectonic lines, it is not impossible to vigorously co-create a pedagogical praxis that nourishes lucid, self-critical minds.

In the spirit of, and through traces of recognizable echoes of our near-extinct lettered communities, a mutual sharpening of critical accounts of human rights abuses on the one hand, and unpredictable creative thought on the other, can still generate a bit of breathing space. No apologies are needed for joyfully contaminating commercially sanitized discourses of indifference with the civic virtue of unruly dialogic curiosity.

Blaise Pascal, Voltaire, Laurence Sterne, Xavier de Maistre, Denis Diderot, and Arthur Schopenhauer are a few examples of authors with whose texts he kept constant and subversive literary dialogues. It is exactly this intertextual aspect of his works that has been used by some critics as the main proof of his alleged detachment from Brazilian national roots.

Has he managed to fool Brazilian readers into living a European fiction? How have his works endured the sometimes militant search for--and creation of--a Brazilian national identity that took place, for example, in the s? By bringing non-Brazilian literary traditions to the forefront of his works, he affirmed his right to invent and sustain dialogues with different cultural traditions on the basis of equality and creative freedom.

His texts provoke the reader to radically reconceptualize originality and to disentangle this precarious term from a linear logic of precedence and superiority. A dynamic nexus of voices emerges not only between Machado de Assis and his predecessors, but also between the characters of his novels and short stories, as well as between his work and its reader. Machado de Assis stresses heterogeneity and refrains from obliterating alterities for the sake of one-dimensional solutions. This tradition combines different literary genres in order to create a polyphonic text.

A large number of Brazilian modernist works performs a double task: they fight against traditions, as well as reexamine and redefine the image of a Brazilian past in search for concrete historical facets of it that had been excluded from and by official historiography in the preceding four hundred years. Oswald de Andrade, one of the organizers of the Semana de Arte Moderna and a member of the Movimento da Antropofagia Movement of Anthropophagy , uses the image of the cannibal in order to describe Brazilian culture. The Grupo da Antropofagia Anthropophagia Group calls for disobedient and inventive reception techniques: literary sources should be adapted to Brazilian reality, and not naively imitated or ignored.

By cutting and editing texts taken from Western 5 The interest in the creation of a Brazilian identity can be traced back to the Brazilian Baroque Romanticism was also a literary movement that focused on the particularity of Brazilian territory, culture and people. However, differently from modernist view on nationalism, the romantic awareness of a national identity was closely connected to the agenda of the Brazilian movement for political independence.

Because texts are open to multiple relationships with other texts, every appropriation gives them meanings that carry the shadow of colonial oppressive discourses while at the same time fight against oppression. Grafting multiple historical counter-fictions onto literary classics, they pluralize canonical texts and contaminate narrative orders with cunning contingency.

The ruse of receptive reason enables each reading and rewriting, each creative rearrangement, to rescue literary sources from chronic arrest and ossification within the narrow frame of the social and cultural status quo that defined the time of their production. Machado de Assis was a man who diplomatically avoided confronting his literary enemies.

His tranquil personal life stood in opposition to the chaotic nature of the subterranean men and women hidden under the compromising social masks of his characters. Such a belated writer who reads, reinterprets, displaces, in short, incorporates another text into his own work can be compared to a guest who enters a house but does not submit himself to its rules.

In the words of J. Machado de Assis presents the reader with characters whose personalities are disintegrating and whose actions are unpredictable. The unpredictability of narrators and characters reveals the constitutive limitations of human perception. Unable to understand the characters completely, the reader becomes aware of the limitations of his own view.

This dialogic process between reader and author, and a radical insistence on singular, individual voices mutually enrich each other. His narrators constantly rehearse and reflect contingency through metafictional passages that open up the text to the point-of- view of the reader.

This recognition of the active role of the reader is both an invitation to coauctorial reading strategies and an exhibition of the process of writing.

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Harold Bloom et al. New York: Seabury, , Even though all events experienced by the narrator point to a loss of individuality, an emphasis on memory as a source of recreation and on the role of the reader in constructing and continuing the stories shows that individual voices will never disappear.

Pushing things to the limit, we could say that the pastiche [. In the process of textual appropriation, both domination and the desire to know are present, as well as admiration and aggression, violence and respect, ritualized submission to, and criticism of the text that is read. In his novels, one can find a literary version of such comments. In his first book, the short story collection Que Fim Levou Brodie? Rio de Janeiro: Record, , he presents his reader with short stories that incorporate and suggest close readings of the works of Jorge Luis Borges.

One day, Antonio faces a disturbing situation: a mysterious man, Faustino Xavier, knocks on his door. This fact makes the narrator even more curious and leads him to a desperate attempt to uncover the secrets behind this mystery. The unexplained appearance and disappearance of Faustino Xavier and the mysterious origin of the book form a mere background for a bigger question that resonates throughout the novel: the definition of the dynamics between individuals and the group to which they belong.

After Antonio has read the book left at his apartment, he starts to suspect that the uniqueness of each human being is threatened by a contemporary tendency to favor the opinion of the majority. The text was a description of what its presumed author believed to be the ideal of a paradise on Earth: the complete equality among human beings. Antonio then remembers his recent past and concludes that this tendency is not exactly new. The behavior of strangers in the novel also suggests the loss of individual voice.

The narrator justifies his act by saying that he is not responsible for the bad quality of the drink. So, you are also responsible! Braz 38, emphasis in the original. A group of young people enters the place and starts to make a loud noise. Quando repeti [. When I repeated it [. But according to our records, you have already been dead for two weeks. The intention of bothered by the presence of Antonio and that he should leave the place. In a similar episode, the narrator crosses a street without paying attention to the traffic light, and is followed by a woman. Scared because the cars almost run her over, the woman falls.

Why would o Velho bother to create a game that would erase any trace of personal existence if not to revenge himself on those who were considered more talented by society? His strategy had more of a personal revenge than of a thought of doing something good for the future of humanity as a whole. The very reason that justifies the creation of the game functions as a counter-text that stands in opposition to the ideas explicitly defended by the group that plays it.

His desire to eliminate any difference among people rises from a desire to be respected as an individual. The narrator explains his need to write a story by affirming that memory forces him to tell what happened. Memory differentiates one person from the others. Even though the narrator affirms to have lost the fight against anonymity, the very fact that the he is telling a story is already a proof that his role as an individual was not completely annulled.

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Antonio is considered dead by society, but he continues to affirm his existence through the very act of writing. The ideas that occupy his mind and fill up two notebooks which compose the novel itself prove that collectivism did not win. He plans to separate mad people from normal people, and to put the former group in a house specially created for this purpose. At the beginning of the story, Bacamarte considers crazy everyone who is somehow different from the others.

Sanity becomes therefore the perfect lack of equilibrium of the mental faculties, a natural and inherent mental imbalance. His work is organized around the idea that it is possible to establish rules that can be applied to all human beings, and that every single act practiced by each single person can be predicted, explained, and justified. At the beginning of the story, Bacamarte believes that life in society would reach a perfect stage when there were no divergences between people.

Regardless the turnabout in his theory, Bacamarte remains faithful to the idea that madness differentiates a minority that does not conform to the majority of citizens. According to Bacamarte, difference is the evil element in society and causes disagreement, conflict, and instability in social life. At the end of the story, the doctor retires himself to the madhouse after concluding that he is the only crazy person in the town. William L. By writing, he proves that his individuality was not erased, because he still has his own interpretation of the world, an individual way of editing the events, and a personal desire to convince others of the accuracy of his point- of-view.

Art is nothing more than the product of the imperfection of an individual B They resist threats of being cut, summarized, distorted, generalized, or erased. Such resistance, however, may do more than justify the originality and autonomy of rewritings. It may tell us more about cultural exchange and shed light on the limitations of the very metaphor of cultural and textual cannibalism. He soon notices that his followers soon began practicing the old virtues. How can we ignore the acquiescent and suffocating implications of self-congratulatory good literary theory for the oppressed?

The phenomenon of cannibalism has also been used as an ideological tool in order to suppress debates on, or even to justify, foreign exploitation and the extermination of local cultures. Is it possible to transform this absence into cultural appropriation? What can be the political agenda that drives these human--and textual-- sacrifices? Can consumption be the means to avoid discussions on cultural exchange, or perhaps an indication of the permeability of any culture?

The question emerges whether Machado suggests that one writes in order to avoid oblivion--of oneself, and not of a cause, a group, or a nation. What matters to Machado and his narrators is to investigate passions that move men from inside out, and modify their behavior independently from their social status. Reading them hastily as--or catapulting them unconditionally into--confrontations with foreign national, or any form of oppression might be an all too easy interpretive move.

A mirror-like object that reminds Bentinho that he is also the object of his own gaze? Fragile and imperfect, words are, nevertheless, resilient and audacious in their fight against speechless realities. Words enjoy the advantage of being able to point at their own deficiencies and limitations, to allow their opposites to constantly clash against the surface of the text. He suggests more than he says. He evokes more than he manifests.

It is not wise to ignore the fractures of our discourse on cannibalism and cultural exchange. What if we reflect on Brazilian literature without considering its dialogue with foreign literatures? What if we temporarily suspend our categorization drive and displace these literary works outside the logic of oppression and subordination?

How can we account for lacks--of explicit political and social awareness, for example--, other than classifying them as deficiencies? We would perhaps begin to ask, as Machado de Assis suggests in his fiction, whether the most interesting part of a story--and, we might add, of history--is exactly that which could not be said or should not have been said. We would perhaps notice that the hermeneutic richness of texts and literatures are partly sponsored by their limitations. We would possibly face other limitations in resistance projects that do not necessarily have to do with economic and political constellations.

A negro churns the crank of the turn-table beneath you. The slightest carelessness and you will leave in the opposite direction to your destination. Every text that is alive--and every text, when read and passed on comes to life--asks to be challenged by the reader. Stella M. Latin American Literary Review Translated by Jack Schmitt and Lorie Ishimatsu. Austin: U of Texas P, Dom Casmurro.

The Psychiatrist and Other Stories. Translated by William L. Quincas Borba. Movimentos Modernistas no Brasil: Vida e Morte da Antropofagia. Rio de Janeiro: Companhia das Letras, Que Fim Levou Brodie? Rio de Janeiro: Record, Machado de La Mancha. Palimpsests: Literature in the Second Degree. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, Kristen Guest, Modernismo e Modernidade.

A Biblioteca de Machado de Assis. Rio de Janeiro: Academia Brasileira de Letras, New York: Seabury, Rio de Janeiro: Vozes, Durham: Duke UP, Za is for Saffron: from a book on the Arabic alphabet by Michael Beard If the alphabet could talk, what would it say to us? It serves long stretches of its time mute, unobtrusive, passively attending to the meanings of the people who use it. We know it is there, but once we have mastered it we also learn to ignore it.

It carries our message for us and beyond that we take it for granted, but like unobtrusive servants noticed only by newcomers or by children, the letters are still there, and right in the foreground. Sometimes a calligrapher makes us notice them again. Perhaps all this time they are mumbling among themselves. Be careful where you put those dots. And different alphabets might have different things to say. In a book which develops a comparable discussion of the Arabic alphabet, the letter Za would come eleventh.

In Persian it would come thirteenth. Drawn with a pen it thickens slightly half-way down and narrows again as the angle changes to the angle of the reed. Add a dot overhead and you have the variation which is our subject for this essay. Add three dots and you have the sound added by Persian speakers in the 15th century, zha. In English too letter Z seems a letter for loan words. There is a lot to say about that extraordinary sentence, its subtle symmetries and its play of consonants, and the way it sets up the nightmarish progress of the narrative which follows. A literal version allows us to see that part of its effect is the juxtaposition of two basic Za words, zendegi and zakhm, life and wound.

It is the kind of juxtaposition which generates proverbs. It will show up again. There is a less serious zakhm in Persian classical tradition, though just as scary. It is no wonder that Muhammad decided that gambling would be forbidden in his community, because the self-consciously undue attention to the details of fate constitutes a threat to the higher forms of awe. The noun form zahmat, as loan word in Persian, is used to describe trouble and effort. Zahmat keshidan is what hosts do when they go out of their way for the guest.

The smell of incense is everywhere. A troop of mysterious Sudanese women dominate the house with shadowy secrets. I peek through the skylight and see my friend in a new scene. In a robe gaudy [muzarkhasha, from the four- consonant Za verb zarkasha, to adorn] with sequins and bangles, she sits on a throne. An ivory crown dangling with beads of every color perches on her head, and her legs soaked in a deep basin of rosewater with green coffee beans in the bottom.

The two bedrooms have comfortable matress, and there're one marriage bed and 2 individual beds. In addition, This apartment has a free parking slot in the garage. It's conserved some rests of a Phoenician settlement from VII century b. Precious apartment near the beach. Apartamento situado a 40 metros de la playa en una zona muy tranquila. Parada de bus y farmacia justo al lado. Restaurants und Lebensmittelladen ganz nah. Privater Parkplatz unten. Additional service charges may have to be paid locally on-site, see house rules and house manual for details.

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Se encuentra a metros del mar. Un sofa de x cm y una cama mueble de x cm dan capacidad para 2 huespedes. Esta ubicada en un entorno rural que invita a pasear y a 2 km de la playa. Tambien consta de sombrilla y nevera para poder escapar a pasar un maravilloso dia de playa.

Vengas de donde vengas este sera "tu rinconcito". Lotf recientemente reformado y equipado con todos los enseres necesarios para convertir tu estancia en una experiencia maravillosa. A pesar de encontrarse ubicado en un entorno rural a excasos kilometros de la playa 2km Cuenta con todas las comodidades incluyendo wifi.

Si el huesped lo desea se le podran organizar escapadas acordes con sus gusto, escapadas urbanitas, playa paradisiacas, rutas de senderismos Se ruega respeto con el entorno. Esta a 2 min. Existe la posibilidadde realizar rutas de senderos para conocer lugares maravillosos con rios, pozas, etc.

Loft rural 2 km de la playa,completamente equipado. Refurbished flat, with all the appliances and needs that you may need. With a modern decoration, it's located in a residential area which is ideal for holidays or work. There are shops and supermarkets close to it, and the beach it's just 15 minutes away walking. There is a public swimming pool just two minutes away.

Southern Chile's Archipelago of Chiloé: Shifting Identities in a New Economy

Es un barrio tranquilo, pero ubicado cerca del centro, lo que lo convierte en el sitio perfecto para descansar pero aun asi tener todo a mano. Modern and recently refurbished flat with parking. Relax surrounded by plants in this patio a few meters from the beach. Wide beach, with chiringuitos nearby and a beautiful promenade of several kilometers wonderful to walk. Perfect for relaxing, enjoy and recharge batteries.

For children it is ideal because they can play safely in the large patio while you take that impressive nap for example. It has independent access and parking. The house has two bedrooms, one with a double bed and the other with two single beds. Of course we have lockers in both rooms. The kitchen has a washing machine, refrigerator, toaster, blender, electric kettle, microwave and all the necessary equipment. The bathroom has a shower and a hairdryer. The house has television and wifi. In patio measures 75 square meters and has a shower to remove the sand when returning from the beach or just cool off.

The house has a numbered parking space. In the vicinity there are supermarkets, pharmacy, gas station, Chinese bazaar and everything you might need. There is also a bus stop at the door that connects with the entire coast and Malaga. Direct access to the beach and courtyard of 75m. Brand new apartment in a quiet urbanization. The decoration that can be found inside is Nordic style. We are m from the bus stop on line that connects Rincon de la Victoria with Malaga capital, leaving passengers at Pier one.

Tyranny of Silence

Connected with transportation to the airport. Within the urbanization you can not park, but you can enter with the car to load and unload. There is parking nearby. The apartment is modern, it has all the appliances you need. Air conditioning in all instances. To access the house there is no need to go up or down stairs, it is on the same level of the street.

The doors are wide and a wheelchair fits. The urbanization is located in a quiet area, 1. A metros esta el mar, una playa con chiringuito, restaurante y zona de copas. Apartamento independiente cerca del mar. Con terraza integrada en la misma vivienda y solarium de uso privado con barbacoa. Apartamento en la playa, en una zona residencial y tranquila, con piscina abierta los meses de junio, julio, agosto y septiembre. Dos dormitorios con camas de matrimonio y cama individual, con el menaje de cama necesario. La terraza es ideal para desayunar y almorzar, es amplia.

Hay disponibilidad de plaza de aparcamiento. A garden apartment with stunning coastal views and an ample private terrace. Located on a hill in a quiet and relaxing location, a 10 minute walk downhill to the beach. Within walking distance of the apartment there are beachfront bars, restaurants and cafes.

Hot and cold air conditioning provided. Kitchen: 2 hobs, fridge, microwave grill, toaster, kettle, plates, mugs, glasses, coffee and tea, iron and ironing board Master bedroom: In the bedroom you will find a queen sized double bed, large fitted wardrobes, bedside drawers and air conditioning. Bathroom: The bathroom includes a shower, vanity unit and toilet. Views of Malaga coast make this a great area to enjoy the sunset and to relax! All of these spaces, including the garden, are private to the apartment.

The property is situated on a hill, 10 minutes walk to the beach. There are numerous bars and restaurants close by the property and the town centre is a 25 minute walk along the promenade. Along the coastline there are a wide variety of restaurants, bars, cafes and shops. The closest supermarket is a 20 minute walk away and a small shop supercor at the petrol station that sells basic items is less than a 10 minute walk.

Quiet residential area, located in an elevated position m from the beach. Restaurants, bars and cafes all with a 10 minute walk downhill. Cycling routes, including parts of La Vuelta, surround the apartment making it a great winter training retreat. We are keen cyclists and runners and happy to share our favourite routes.

Panoramic Sea Views in a Garden Oasis. Precioso apartamento con acceso directo a la playa, unas vistas impresionantes. A 20 metros hay un chiringuito con tumbonas y sombrillas. Tiene aparcamiento numerado. Se accede a la playa por un lateral del edificio. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in. If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube. Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. It emphasizes the economic changes of the last two generations, particularly the shift from subsistence livelihoods to wage labor, and the impact they have had on the way islanders see themselves and define their culture.

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